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Dienstag, 2. Februar 2016

Iconography of Jaina Deities (Set of 2 Volumes)

About The Book
Jainism has to its credit a large number of religious treatises enshrining besides the other religious practices, the lives and teachings of the Tirthankaras, twenty-four in number, besides other minor deities. The iconography of these Jaina deities, some of which owe their origin to the Brahmanical faith is quite complex in nature. The iconography of these deities has been discussed at length, correlating it with the development of Jaina sculptural art from the earliest times to the medieval period. While doing so, the sculptural art as preserved in the Jaina temples at Deogarh, Khajuraho, Kumbharia, Osian, Abu, Taranga, Gyaraspur, Jalor, Ghanerao and many other Jaina shrines and the vestiges of the past have been discussed in considerable details. Stress has also been laid in the description of the Sasanadevatas of the Tirthankaras viz., the Yaksas and Yaksis, in addition to the Mahavidyas, and other Tantric deities. The composite forms of the Jaina deities available in the Jaina shrines and other antiquarian remains have also received due attention. The prominent Jaina personalities of divine nature like Bahubali, Bharata, Cakravarti, the parents of the Jinas and other issues connected with them have also been suitably brought out.

The life scenes of the Jinas have been projected mostly in the Svetambara Jaina temples, besides in the form of miniatures in the Kalpasutra manuscripts. These have been highlighted in this work in a befitting manner in addition to the hitherto lesser known deities of the Jaina pantheon. The entire study has been authenticated by the numerous Jaina texts, the evidence of the sculptural art in the country, besides the historical and other archaeological evidence which would interest the students and scholars besides the common people as well.

About The Author
The author, a graduate of the Punjab University, served in the curatorial capacity in the Central Asian Antiquities Museum, New Delhi, the Archaeological Museum, Nalanda, and Archaeological Section of the. Indian Museum, Calcutta for a number of years, He has to his credit the scientific documentation of over fifty thousand antiquities, in these museums, representing the rich cultural heritage of the country and comprising of sculptures, bronzes, terracottas, beads, seals and sealing, ancient Indian numismatics, wood work, miniatures and paintings, textiles and Pearce collection of gems, ranging from the earliest times to the late medieval period. He was awarded, in 1987, a fellowship, for his monograph on the Temples of Himachal Pradesh, by the Indian Council of Historical Research, New Delhi. The glimpses of the author's works are provided below-

(1) The Universal Mother (2) Temples of Himachal Pradesh (3) The Indian Monoliths (4) Protection, Conservation and Preservation of Indian Monuments (5) Working Manual and Field Works Code, (3 Volumes) of the Archaeological Survey of India (6) Mahisa- suramardini in Indian Art (7) Composite Deities in Indian Art and Literature (8) Garuda, the Celestial Bird (9) The Cult of Vinayaka (10) Jatakas in Indian Art (11)Image of Brahma in India and Abroad (12) Siva in Indian Art, Literature and Thought (13) Varaha in Indian Art, Culture and Literature (14) Surya and Sun-Cult in Indian Art, Thought, Literature and Culture (15) Maruti-Hanuman (16) Sri Visnu Caritam (17) Mahiravana in Indian Paintings (18) Krttivasa Ramayana (English Translation).

The sacred land of India, is the land of religion. Many religions, religious beliefs, and religious sects have played their role for the enlightenment of the man and for the removal of the sufferings of the mankind. In order to achieve this objective many religious beliefs dominated the Indian religious scene from time to time in the past. While some of them vanished from the Indian religious thought as rapidly as they had mushroomed, some of them faded away from the public mind, with the passage of time, having outlived their respective utility or having lost the public appeal. Still there were certain cults, creeds and the religious beliefs which claim their genesis to the remote past but never lost their public appeal and have reached the modern times. Jainism, happens to the one of them , the historicity of which could conveniently be traced to centuries before the advent of the Christian era, and has come down to us during the present times facing many storms and upheavals, before reaching the modern age. Though by about the beginning of the Christian era, the faith was divided into two separate but parallel streams of ideologies, but its basic character remained unchanged.
In the Jaina traditions, besides the other deities, the Arhats, the Siddhas, the Kevalas have been treated with great reverence. The Sadhus (ascetics) have been defined to be of two kinds including - Acaryas, Upadhyayas and ordinary monks. The Kevala knowledge is also considered to be the holy discourse of the Jinas and is also called Sruta. The Jaina religion prescribes the adoration of these Pancaparmesthis, besides the Srutadevatas. The Sasanadevatas (Yaksas and Yaksis), the Ksetrapalas, Dikpalas, and Navagrahas were admitted as objects of adoration by the Jainas in the later times.

The method of the adoration of the Jinas, and the need for their worship has been defined in several Jaina texts. Many of the Acaryas have conceived it to be the part of Vaiyavrtya. That is why Samantabhadra included it in his text of Ratnakaranda Sravakacara in the same way as Somadeva Surt did it in his Yasastilaka Campu. Jinasena too included it in his Adi Purana in one form or the other.

The adoration has been described to be of six kinds, viz., (1) Naga worship, (ii) Sthapanapisja (iii) Dravyapuia, (iv) Ksetrapuja, (v) Kalapuja, and (vi) Bhavapuja. Out of them, the Sthapanapuja is of two types viz., Sadbhava-sthapana and Asadbhava-sthapana. The creation of the image of deity is exactly in the same form (as prescribed in the texts) and worshipping it, comes under the first category; the adoration of a slab or a vase filled with water, consecrating it and then adoring it, comes under the second category. The Jaina texts discourage the adoration of the Asadbhava consecration of divinities. Vasunandi Sravakacara has stressed on the need for the adoration of the well consecrated images alone-

The images by the sight of which, one feels delighted are required to be erected by the devotees. Such images are worshipped conceiving that all the qualities and virtues of the Lord are enshrined in such images. According to a Jaina tradition Bahubali, the son of Rsabha, the first Tirthankara, who indeed was a Cakravartin, built as many as seventy-two Jaina temples over the Kailasa mountain. This led to the tradition for the consecration of the Jaina shrines and images. Numerous texts are available containing the method for the consecration of the Jaina images. All these texts are the creations of the medieval times. It is not that the images of the Tirthankaras were not made earlier to the medieval times, because we have met with such images during the Sunga- Kusana times and thereafter there is a continuous flow of such images. The earliest reference to the erection of a Jina image is found in the Avasyakacurni in which it is stated that during the life time of Mahavira, the last of the Tirthankaras, before his receiving diksa, his image of sandalwood was carved. In the epigraph of Hathi Gumpha, there is a mention of the removal of the image of Jina from Kalinga by Nandaraja, Though some of the scholars have tried to trace the presence of the Jaina deities in the Harappan Culture itself, but this theory has been contested by others. But the earliest figure of a Jina, though damaged, was found from Lohanipur near Patna. The artefacts of Mathura, Khandagiri in Orissa and several other sites have produced the Jaina artefacts from quite an early date.

The early images of the Jaina faith were confined to the Jinas alone and they could be distinguished from one another with the help of their names, inscribed over pedestal of each one of these images. At a subsequent stage the respective lanchanas (cognizances) were also embossed or carved over the pedestals by which one could identify the Jina images. A third stage was reached when the Sasanadevatas (a yaksa and yaksi) were attached to each one of the Tirthankaras, making their identification a bit easier. Simultaneously, the Jaina texts highlighting the iconography of these Sasanadevatas as well as the Mahavidyas were also developed. But a surprising development of the medieval times had been the admission of the Brahmanical deities like Siva, Brahma, Navagrahas, Matrikas, Ganesa, Laksmi, Rama, Krsna and Balarama into the Jainism, though their position was always a subordinate one. Surprisingly enough the images of Brahrnanical deities were found installed in the Parsvanatha temple at Khajuraho, besides other Jaina temples at Kumbharia, Deogarh, Abu and others.

But the most astonishing aspect of the Jaina faith had been the silent penetration of the Tantric deities like the Mahavidyas, the Causatha-yoginis and the like in the Jaina faith, the adoration of which was contrary to the Jaina beliefs. The text of Catursastiyoginitantra is quite vocal on the subject. Though most of the yoginis of the Brahmanical faith found place in the yoginis of the Jaina faith, but some of them were developed independently by the Jainas as well.

The present work has been distributed into a dozen chapters. The first chapter deals with the doctrine, philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, monks and monkhood, Ajivakas and the Asceticism, providing broad outlines of the Jaina faith on these issues besides several other topics, which provide a bird's eye view of the genesis and evolution of the Jaina spiritual thought. The second .... chapter deals with the literary sources, Brahmanical, Jaina "as well as the Buddhist, on the basis of which the monograph has been based. These include Vedic and post-vedic literature, Epics, Upanisads, Puranas, Jaina texts including Silpasastras and several other texts. The third chapter deals with the Tirthankaras, their genesis and evolution, their projection in art and other related issues. The fourth chapter deals with the Yaksas in general as well as those attached to the Tirthankaras as their attendants, the number of whom is twenty-four. The fifth chapter deals with iconography of the Yaksis besides their projection in art.

The sixth chapter deals with Srutadevis and Vidyadevis or Mahavidyas whose number is sixteen. The seventh chapter highlights the position of the Brahmanical deities who were silently admitted into the Jaina faith. The eighth chapter describes the iconography of Navagrahas, and Vyantara devatas, besides their projection in art. It includes, besides Navagrahas,Ksetrapalas and Dikpalas. The ninth chapter deals with other modes of adoration. The tenth chapter deals with the evidence of Epigraphical records which relate to the Jaina faith. The eleventh chapter has the importance of its own since the life scenes of Rsabha, Parsva and Mahavira, based on the Kalpasutra have been brought out. Epilogue, the last chapter, sums up the discussion of the subject as contained in the earlier chapters. This is not the first work on the subject, but several others have also been composed by scholars of great repute with all the ability and excellence at their command. These works have left an indelible impression on the students of the subject who always look upon them as their guides and torch bearers.

A. Introduction -Jinastuti, by Acarya Samantabhadra (Lord Rsabha, was self born, since he had attained salvation and the four infinites (i. e. , the infinite perception, knowledge, potence and bliss) of his own accord by spontaneously knowing and following the path of salvation without receiving any instruction (or monitoring or support) by others. He was benevolent to all and magnificent with the glory of the eyes of the perfect knowledge. He graced the world like the moon, annihilating the darkness of ignorance-caused by the fruition of knowledge-observing karma-by his attributes and helped the mundane soul in their endeavours for the attainment of celestial pleasures and for those of salvation.)

Jainism is the monastic religion, which, like Buddhism, denounced the authority of the Vedas, and is therefore regarded by the Brahmanas as heretical. Indeed both Jainism and Buddhism are considered by scholars to be reactionary to the age old Vedic practices of the performing of the yajnas as well as the animal sacrifice. The jaina church consists of monastic order and the lay community. It is divided into two rival sects called the Svetambaras and the Digambaras or the sky clad; they are so called because the monks of the Svetambaras wear white garment and those of the Digambaras originally went about stark naked till they were forced to cover their privates during the medieval times. The dogmatic differences between the two sects are rather trivial; they differ more in conduct rather than basic or fundamental principles.

The interest of Jainism to the student of religion, consists in fact that it goes back to a very early period and to the primitive currents of religious and metaphysical speculation, which gave rise also to the oldest Indian philosophies-Samkhya and Yoga and Buddhism. It shares in the theoretical pessimism of the three systems as the aim of their practical idea-Liberation. Life in the world perpetuated by the transmigration of the soul, is essentially bad and painful, and therefore, it must be the aim of everyone to put an end to the cycle of births and this end will be accomplished when we come into the possession of the right knowledge. It may be stated that with the exception of Yoga, all these ancient systems are strictly atheistic i.e., they do not admit an absolute Supreme God; even in Yoga, the Isvara is not the first and the only cause of everything existent. In this general principle Jainism agrees with Samkhya and Yoga besides the Buddhism, but they differ in their methods of realising it. In the metaphysics there is some general likeness between Samkhya and Yoga on the one ham and Jainism on the other. For in all thest systems a dualism of matter and soul is acknowledged; the souls are principally all alike substances, characterised by 'intelligence their actual difference being caused by their connection with matter; matter according to Jainas and Samkhyas of indefinite nature as something that might become anything. These general metaphysical principles, however, are worked out on different lines by the Samkhyas and the Jainas, the difference being more accentuated by the different origins of these systems. For the.Samkhyas owe their allegiance to the Brahmanas, have adopted Brahmanical ideas and the modes of thought, which the Jainas being distinctively non- Brahmanical have worked upon popular notions of a more primitive and ruder character, e.g. animistic idea. But the metaphysical principles of Buddhism are of an entirely different character being moulded by the fundamental principles of Buddhism, viz., that there is no absolute or permanent being, or in other words, that all things are transitory. Notwithstanding the radical differences in their philosophical notions, Jainism and Buddhism, being originally both orders of monks outside the pale of Brahmanism, present some resemblance in outward appearance, so that even Indian writers occasionally have confused them. It is, therefore, not to be wondered that some foreign scholars, who became acquainted with Jainism through the inadequate samples of the Jaina literature easily persuaded themselves that it was the offshoot of the Buddhism. But it has since been proved beyond doubt that their theory is wrong and that Jainism is as old as Buddhism itself. For the canonical books ofthe Buddhists frequently mention the Jainas as a rival sect under their old name Nirganthas (or Nirgranthas in Sanskrit and also known as Nigganthas in common Prakrit) and their leader in the time of the Buddha being Nataputta (Nata or Natiputta being an epithet of the last Tirthankara of the Jainism, Vardhamana Mahavira and they name the place of the latter's death at Pava, in agreement with the Jaina traditions. On the other hand the canonical books of the Jainas mention as contemporary of Mahavira the same kings who; reigned during the Buddha's career and one of the latter's rivals. Thus it is established that Mahavira was a contemporary of Buddha and probably somewhat earlier than the latter, who outlived the rival's decease at Pavao Like the Buddha, Mahavira, however, was probably not the founder of the sect, which revers him as the Tirthankara and not as the author of their religion.

According to the unanimous Buddhist tradition, Buddha had, under the Bodhi-tree discovered by intuition the fundamental truth as his religion, as it appears throughout his personal . Work; his first sermons of the religion, are things ever to be remembered by his followers, as are the doctrines which he then preached. No such traditions are preserved in the canonical literature the Jainas about Mahavira. His becoming a monk and twelve years later, his attainment of omniscience (Kevala) are of course celebrated events. But the tradition is silent about his motives for the renouncing of the world and about the particular truths whose discovery led to his exalted position. At any rate Mahavira is not described by the tradition as first having become a disciple of teachers whose doctrines afterwards failed to satisfy him as we are told about the Buddha.

He seems to have had no misgivings, and to have known where the truth was to be had and thus he became a Jaina monk. Again, when after many years of austerities such as are practised by other ascetics of the Jainas, he reached omniscience. He is represented as gaining his Kevala, perfect knowledge of what he knew before only in part and imperfectly earlier. Thus, Mahavira appears in the tradition of his own and as the one, who, from the beginning had followed a religion establishcd long ago; but he had been more, had he been the founder of Jainism, tradition, ever eager to extol a prophet, would not have totally repressed his claims to reverence as such. Nor do the Buddhist traditions indicate that the Niganthas owed their origin to Natiputta; they simply speak of them as of a sect existing at the time of Buddha. Though it would be difficult to assume Mahavira as the founder of Jainism in the absence of any positive evidence in support of it, because he ippened to be, according to the Jaina tradition, the last of the twenty-four Tirthankaras.

parasvanatha, his predecessor, seems to have better claim to title ofthe founder of Jainism. His death is reasonably placed at the interval of two hundred and fifty years before that of Mahavira, while parsvanatha's predecessor Aristanemi is stated to have died eighty-four thousand years before the nirvana of Mahavira. Followers of Parsvanatha are mentioned in the Jaina canonical literature. A tradition in a legend described in the Uttaradhyana Sutra (xxiii) relates about a meeting between a disciple of Parsva and a disciple of Mahavira which brought about the union of the old branch of 'the Jaina philosophy with the new one. This seems to indicate that Parsva was a historical figure, but in the absence of historical documents no positive statement can be made.


Vol. 1
  Acknowledgements v
  Preface vii
  List of Figures xv
  List of Plates xix
1. Introduction - I-49
A. Introduction - (i) The Doctrines-(a) Philosophy-5, (b) Metaphysics-6; (ii) The Ethics-8; (iii) The Monks and Monkhood-8; (iv) Ascetism-9; (v) Ajivakas-11 1
B. The Svetambaras and the Digambaras - (i) The Digambaras-(a) Yaksas and Yaksinis-l 8; (ii) The Svetambaras-21 11
C. The Image Worship - (i) The Genesis-26; (ii) The Evolution-27; (iii) Accessories-28 26
D. Classification of Jaina Gods and Goddesses -(i) Jaina Divinities-30; (ii) Brahmanical Divinities-32 30
E. The Tirthankaras 33
F. The Evidence of Early Indian Art 35
G. Historical Overtones 36
H. Places of Jaina Pilgrimage 42
I. Ayagapattas 43
J. Omkara 46
K. Hrmkara 47
L. Siddhartha-cakra 47
M. Pancatirtha 48
N. The Slakapurusas 48
O. Krsna and Balarama 48
2. The Literary Sources-50-62
1. Brahmanical Literature 50
A. Vedic Literature - (i) Rgveda-Sl ; (ii) Yajurveda-51; (iii) Atharvaveda-52 50
B. Post-Vedic Literature - The Brahmanas (Satapatha Brahmana)-52 52
C. The Epics - (i) Ramayana-52; (ii) Mahabharata-52 52
D. The Upanisads - (i) Taittiriya Upanisad-53; (ii) Nrsimhaparvatapinyopanisad-53; (iii) Mundaka Upanisad-53; (iv) Brhadaranyaka Upanisad-53 53
E. The Puranas - (i) Bhagavata Purana-54; (ii) Brahmanda Purana-56: (iii) Garuda Purana-56; (iv) Visnu Purana-56: (v) Markandeya Purana-57; (vi) Vamana Purana-57; (vii) Siva Purana-57: (viii) Kurma Purana-58 54
2. Jaina Literature 58
A. Silpasastras 58
B. Western Indian Texts -(i) Vastusastra of Visvakarma-59; (ii) Vastuvidya of Visvakarma-60; (iii) Aparajitaprccha of Bhuvanadeva-60; (iv) Sridevyadhikara-60; (v) Vrksaranava-60 59
3 The Buddhist Literature 60
3. The Tirthankaras-63-183
A. The Concept 63
B. The Material for Icons 65
C. The Icons - Silpratna. Sravakacara. Pratisthapatha, Acaradinkara. Pratisthasaroddhara, Visnudharmattara, Mayamatta. Pratisthasarasamgraha, Brhatsamhita, Vivekavilasa, Rupamandana. Aparajitaprchha. 66
D. Twenty-four Jinas - (i) General observations-69; (ii) The Associates- Tirthankaras, their symbols, Yaksa and Yaksis at a glance-70; (iii) The Main Objects of Worship-72 69
E. Tirthankaras in Art - (i) Rsabhanatha/Adinatha-73; (ii) Ajitanatha-91; (iii) Samhbhavanatha-94; (iv) Abhinandananatha-96; (v) Sumatinatha-98; (vi) Padmaprabha-l00; (vii) Suparsvanatha- l0l ; (viii) Candraprabha-103; (ix) Suvidhinatha or Puspadanta- 106; (x) Sitalanatha- 107; (xi) Sreyansanatha -108; (xii) Vasupujya-l09; (xiii) Vimalanatha - 111 ; (xiv) Anantanatha - 112: (xv) Dharmanatha-113; (xvi) Santinatha-114; (xvii) Kunthanatha-120; (xviii) Aranatha- l21 : (xix) Mallinatha-122; (xx) Munisuvrata-124; (xxi) Naminatha-126; (xxii) Neminatha-127; (xxiii) Parsvanatha- l34: (xxiv) Mahavira-148; (xxv) Bahubali and Bharata-158; (xxvi) Groups of Tirthankaras-l64 73
4. The Yakas-184-246
A. The Salient Features 188
B. Projection in the Early Art 191
C. The Yaksas and Their Iconographic Features - (i) Gomukha-196; (ii) Maha yaksa-200; (iii) Trimukha-202; (iv) Isvara or Yaksesvara-203; (v) Tumburu-204; (vi) Kusuma-205; (vii) Matanga-206; (viii) Vijaya or Syama-208; (ix) Ajita-209; (x) Brahma'Yaksa=211 ; (xi) Isvara-213; (xii) Kumara-214; (xiii) Sanmukha or Caturmukha-216; (xiv) Patala-217; (xv) Kinnara-219; (xvi) Garuda-220; (xvii) Gandharva-222; xviii) Yaksendra or Ksendra or Yaksesa-224; (xix) Kubera or Yaksesa-226; (xx) Varuna-228; (xxi) Bhrkuti-230; (xxii) Gomedha-231; (xxiii) Parsva or Dharatendra-236; (xxiv) Matanga-239 196
D. Other Yaksas - (i) Sarvalha or Sarvahana-242; (ii) BrahmaSanti-243; (iii) Kapardi-243 242
5. The Yaksis (or Yaksinis)-247-313
A. The Salient Features 247
B. Projection in Art 249
C. Yaksis and Their Iconographic Features - (i) Cakresvari or Apraticakra-252; (ii) Ajita or Ajitabala or Rohini-258; (iii) Duritari or Prajnapti-261; (iv) Kalika or Kali or Vajrasrnkhala-263; (v) Mahakali or Purusadatta or Naradatta-264; (vi) Acyuta or Syama or Manasi or (v) Mahakali or Purusadatta or Naradatta-264; (vi) Acyuta or Syama or Manasi or Manovega -266; (VII)Santa or kali -268; (VIII) Bhrkuti or Jvala or Javalamalini -269; (ix)Sutara or Candalika or Mahakali-271;(x)Asoka or Gomedhika or Manavi-272; (xi) Manavi or Srivatsa or Gauri-274; (xii) Canda or Pracanda or Ajita or Gandhari-276; (xiii) Vidita or Vairoti-277; (xiv) Anantmati or Anantamati-279; (xv) Kandarpa or Pannaga or Manasi-280; (xvi) Nirvant or Mahamanasi-281; (xvii) Bala or Jaya-283; (xviii) Dharani or Taravati, Kall or Vijaya-285; (xix) Vairotya or Aparajita-287; (xx) Naradatta or Bahurupini-288; (xxi) Gandhari or Malini, Camunda or Kusmandini-289; (xxii) Ambika or Kusmandi; or Amara Devi-291; (xxiii) Padmavati-301; (xiv) Siddhidayika or Siddhidayini-308. 249
6. Srutadevis/Vidyidevis-314-349
(i) Rohini-321; (ii) Prajnapati-321; (iii) Vajrasrnkhala-322; (iv) Vajrankusa-323; >(v) Apraticakra or Cakresvari or Jambumala-324; (vij Naradatta or Puspadanta327; (vii) Kali or KaIika-330; (viii) Mahakali-332; (ix) Gauri-334; (x) Gandhari-336; (xi) Sarvastramahajvala or Jvala or Jvalamalini-337; (xii) Manavi-339; (xiii) Vairotya or Vairoti-340; (xiv) Acchusa or Acyuta-343; (xv) Manasi-345; (xvi) Mahamanasi-346.
7. The Brahmanical Deities-350-366
A. Male Deities -
(i) Brahma-350; (ii) Vismu-350; (iii) Rama-352; (iv) Lord Krsna-353; (v) Ganesa-357; (vi) Indra-358.
B. Female Deities -
(i) Laksmi-359; (ii) Mahisasuramardini - 359; (iii) Causathayoginis - 360; (iv)Astamatrikas-362; (v) Harinaigamesa or Naigamesa-364; (vi) Santi Devi-366.
Vol. 2
8. Navagrahas and Vyantara Devatas-367-384
A. The Nine Planets or Navagrahas - (i) The Sun-368; (ii) The Moon-368; (iii) Mars-369; (iv) Mercury-370; (v) Jupiter-370; (vi) Venus-371 ; (vii) Saturn-372; (viii) Rahu-372; (ix) Ketu-373. 367
B. Vyantara Devatas 374
1. Ksetrapalas 374
2. Lokapalas - (i) Indra-376; (ii)Agni-377; (iii) Yama-378; (iv)Nairriti-379; (v) Varuna-380; (vi) Vayu-381; (vii) Kubera-382; (viii) Isana-383; (ix) Brahma-384; (x) Nagas-384. 375
9. Other Modes of Adoration-385-410
  (i) Pancaparamesthins-385; (ii) Trees, Flowers and Fruits-391; (iii) Hand Attributes-400; (iv) Asanas-406; (v) Mudras-407; (vi) Halo-408; (vii) The Ornaments-408; (viii) Cymbal Players-408; (ix) Chowrie-bearers-408; (x) Lanchanas-409; (xi) Srivatsa symbol-409  
10. The Epigraphical Profile -411-419
  Kusana Period-411; Gupta Period (A.D. 350-650)-412; Medieval Period (9th Century A.D.)-413; 11th Century A.D.-415; 12th Century A.D.-415; 13th Century A.D.-417; 14th Century A.D.-417; 15th Century A.D.-417; 16th Century A.D.-418.  
11. The Evidence of Miniature Paintings from Kalpasutra Manuscripts -420-435
A. Life of Rsabha 420
B. Life of Mahavira 427
C. Llfe of Parsva 434
D. Life of Aristanemi 435
12. Epilogue-436-440
I. Twenty-four Tirthankaras-A Profile 441
II. Yaksa Iconography-A Review 443
III. Yaksis' or Yaksnis' Profile 446
IV. Profile of Jaina Mahavidyas 449

Item Code:
B.R. Publishing Corporation
Vol-II: 9788176461191
11.0 inch x 8.5 inch
1744 (76 B/W Illustrations)
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Weight of the Book: 2.8 kg
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Montag, 11. Januar 2016

Mystische Reisende: Sufis, Asketen und Heilige Männer von: 29.01.2016 bis: 24.04.2016 im Pergamonmuseum

Schon immer war die mystische Tradition ein wichtiger Bestandteil der unterschiedlichen Glaubensformen Südasiens. Die verschiedenen Sufi-Traditionen des Islam, hinduistisches Asketentum und Yoga-Praktiken mischten sich zu einer faszinierenden synkretistische Glaubenskultur. Sie prägt bis heute das spirituelle Bild Südasiens.

Prinz Selim besucht einen Chishti-Sufi in seiner Höhle, Indien, erste Hälfte 17. Jahrhundert
© Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Islamische Kunst 


Die Ausstellung "Mystische Reisende: Sufis, Asketen und Heilige Männer" zeigt indische Miniaturen aus den Polier-Alben des Museums für Islamische Kunst. Sie erlauben einen Blick auf die unterschiedlichen mystischen Ausprägungen und verschiedenen spirituellen Reisen, die sowohl physisch wie auch metaphysisch, tatsächlich wie auch metaphorisch gedacht sind. Ultimatives Ziel des Reisenden ist es, die eigenen körperlichen Begrenzungen zu überwinden und das Ich mit dem Göttlichen zu vereinigen. Dabei folgen einige "Reisende" ihren spirituellen Pfad innerhalb offizieller religiöser und sozialer Strukturen. Andere, und zwar Männer wie Frauen, folgten ihm außerhalb der Norm und oft im Widerspruch zu den offiziellen Regeln. Einige "Reisende" lebten in Höhlen oder Einsiedeleien, weit weg vom städtischen Lebensraum; andere wiederum wanderten von Ort zu Ort, manchmal mit Schülern, häufig alleine. Die Ausstellung gibt einen Einblick in die Vielfalt dieser "mystische Landschaft" und den unterschiedlichen Wegen hin zum Göttlichen.


Dienstag, 8. Dezember 2015

Indian Puppetry and Puppet Stories

Back of the Book 
Whoever in India has not seen Rajasthani puppeteers wearing colorful who make their Kath putlis dance and execute action right in front of the band of fascinated children (and adults)? Indeed puppetry is one of the most ancient skilled are forms in this land and virtually exists in all states. The puppets are animated objects that perform like characters in theatre and often much more. Especially for children it is willing suspension of disbelief and thereafter huge enjoyment of the antics and frolics of the puppets performing and enacting stories right before their eyes.
In fact all puppets enact stories even if in rudimentary forms at times. Myths and legends come alive in the stories narrate here. Animals perform likeable characters. Flowers and plants converse fold tales re-create their milieu fairies float in and out. Superstitions are taken by the harms in moral tales. Toothbrushes and combs traipse through strange tricks. Ghosts just come alive and have great fun. And aliens descend to earth to share secrets with kids.
And it is primarily the kids (and adult who hold their belied in kids) who are most likely to have a rollicking time with animated puppets. This book tells that here are many more puppets then only the Rajasthan Kath Putlis and they can do myriad things that are written about in these pages so go ahead and have fun!.

About the Author
Sampa Ghosh joined Calcutta Puppet under Suresh Dutta in 1980. She received scholarship form min. of culture Govt. of India for puppetry in 1982-85 and participated more than 2000 shows all over India and Bangladesh as a member of CPT. She worked at SRC puppet repertory as its director in 1986-87 and directed four puppet plays which proved very popular. She participated in Indiana manifestation festival in Sweden in 1987 as the group leader performing 42 shows all over Sweden. She conducted many puppet workshops in India and Canada especially for children and teacher. She also directed two children productions and lec-dem on Indian puppets under the aegis of Kala Bharati in Montreal. Her book make your own puppets and Indian puppets with Utpal K. Banerjee has been highly appreciated.
Dr. Utpal K. Banerjee is an adviser on management and information Technology for nearly thirty years after having studied on a doctoral programme in the U.K. He has a abiding interest in Indian art and culture. His formal exposure to visual and performing arts of the world has been through courses conducted at extra mural department. University of Manchester. He has been national project director for Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA). In the nineties he has been utilized by Indian Council for cultural Relations to lecture on Indian Art and culture in Canada in 1990 and in South American in 1998. he has given lectures on Indian art and culture for the IFS probationers and in the foreign service institute to the Afro Asian diplomats. His article on role of cultural diplomacy appeared in the prestigious tow volume work Indian foreign policy agenda for the 21st century from FSI. His latest contribution on Ruled by the religion has been included in the magnum opus Spectacular India published from the USA in 2000.

Puppetry is a highly ancient art form haloed in Indian traditions and practiced since the old time by the village communities both for entertainment purpose. Nearest to theatre puppetry can enliven situations that are denied to there arts forms. For children it remains one of the most trusted mean of entertainment as they can easily suspend disbelief and get delightfully swayed by the action gestures of the puppets playing in fronts of them. Precisely for the same reason puppetry can be used for teaching them lessons on morals and for the very young codes of behavior.
In the first part of the book puppets are introduced along with a short history. Basically there are four classes of traditional puppets glove, rod, string, and shadow (colored and black and white). The art of puppetry is remarkably will disturbed to Southeast Asia. Contemporary Indian puppets are a comparatively recent urban phenomenon and can assume many innovative hues and colors in the hands of professional artists. Indian tribal puppets are covered too. Sans manipulation puppets are inanimate objects but matriculation by trained puppeteers infuses life into them. Surprisingly even children can learn fast to manipulate puppets and hugely enjoy the process!
Considerable light is thrown on production plays including scripts voice modulation stagecraft scenery sets properties special effects and music and last but not the least story telling. Indeed in story telling that is the raison d’etre for puppetry!
In the second part as many as thirty two stories are offered for being told through puppetry. It must be emphasized here that these stories are structured in such a way that an ingenious puppeteer can add new characters and modify text at will according to exigencies of the situation. The stories begin with those told without words as they are easiest (and often the funniest) to execute and can accept any amount of additional frills! Then fellow the myths and legends animal stories nature stories folk tales fairy tales; moral tales; behavioral tales; some delightful ghost stories and children centric science fiction. The types of puppets stage props, music etc. mentioned with each story are only indicative in nature and can be changed during performance if need be.
The authors are thankful for many suggestions photographs received to illustrate the text. They would be particularly gratified if the book almost a first of its kind in India is of use to the masses of school in India. Where teacher desperately need basic knowledge as well as story material for teaching and staging puppetry.


Part One – Indian Puppetry  
What is Puppet? 8
Short History of Puppets 8
Types of Puppets 10
Traditional Indian Puppets 11
Indian Tribal Puppets 22
Contemporary Indian Puppets 23
Manipulation of Puppets 32
Production of Puppet Play
Scripts, Properties, Voice Modulation
Special Effects, Stage, Dance & Music
Scenery Lighting Set Story Telling
Part Two – Puppet Stories  
Stories without Words
-- The Doctor and the Patient
-- The Quarrelsome Monkeys
-- The dream
-- The Enemy
-- The Fishing Rod
--The Snakes and the Snake Charmer
Myths and Legends
--Birth of Puppets
--Gods Go Round the World
-- Birth of Ganesha
Krishna and the Fearsome Kaliya
Animal stories
-- The Birthday
-- Three Billy Goats
-- The Wicked Tiger
-- The Crocodile and the Fox
Nature Stories
-- Who will be the King?
-- The Nature Teacher
-- The Monkey Gardeners
Folk Tales
-- Raju My Baby Brother
-- The Thin Old Widow
-- The Fox’s Marriage
Fairy Tales
-- Kanchanmala
-- The Princess and the Frog
Moral Tales
-- Death of a Cat
-- The Talisman
Behavioral Tales
--Lazy Munni
--Careless Munni
Ghost Stories
-- The Ghost who Sang Songs
-- The Colorful Ghosts
-- The Ghost of High Seas
-- The Long Legged Ghost
Science fiction
-- Mithu on the Rocket
--The Alien

Rupa-Pratirupa: The Body in Indian Art - Bestselling Books on Indian Art

About The Author
Dr. Naman P. Ahuja is Associate Professor of Ancient Indian Art and Architecture at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi where his research and graduate teaching focus on Indian iconography and sculpture, temple architecture and Sultanate period painting. He has curated several exhibitions on themes ranging from ancient to contemporary Indian art.
He has held Visiting Professorships and Fellowships at Fellowships at Florence, Zurich, Oxford and SOAS (London) and Curatorship of Indian Sculpture at the British Museum.
Some of His publication include: The making of the modern Indian Artist Craftsman: Devi Prasad (Routledge, 2011), Divine Presence, The Arts of India and the Himalayas (Five Continents Editions, Milan, 2003, in English Catalan and Spanish); and The Body in Indian Art and Thought (Ludion, Belgium 2013, in English, French and Dutch).

The exhibition ‘The Body in Indian Art' is significant to National Museum for y reasons. It is one of the largest ever mounted at the Museum. The exhibition brings together over 350 objects from over 40 museums and private collections, with National Museum contributing a large number of exhibits from its vast collections. Visitors have an opportunity here to view works which have never before been publicly exhibited or published. The exhibition I also a collaborative project, bringing together expertise from outside the museum to complement in-house capabilities.
The exhibition was on display in Brussels as part of the Europalia festival, a project of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations, in 2013. We would like to record our sincere gratitude to the ICCR for permitting us to mount the exhibition on its return to India.
Exhibition curator Naman Ahuja's vision is grounded in the plural history of India: balancing the art and material culture of every region and every epoch, deluxe objects made for maharajas and everyday terracottas and wooden images of the everyman and everywoman. It compares the art expressions of different philosophical and cultic persuasions to present the material in a scholarly yet approachable manner. Above all, this vision is aesthetically precise and exacting.
National Museum would like to thank all the lenders to this exhibition without whom its narrative would not be as rich and wonderful as it is. We would also like to acknowledge the work put in by the various teams at National Museum and Naman Ahuja's team who worked tirelessly to create this unique exhibition.
It is a matter of great pride for National Museum to present it to the public.

This publication accompanies the exhibition 'Rupa-Pratirupa: The Body in Indian Art' held at the National Museum in New Delhi from 14th March to 7th June 2014. It contains a complete list of all the exhibits and detailed notes on some of the highlights of the exhibition. While it cannot reproduce the selections of music and films on dance and ritual performances, which enrich the experience of the artworks in the exhibition, it lists the films used and a CD of the music is included. These materials extend the remit of the exhibition to performative cultures that are intangible or ephemeral, that seldom have archaeological or material history, and equally rarely leave behind a literature that records the ritual or performance.
The intention of this volume is to aid the visitor's experience of the exhibition. For a more comprehensive stud) of the aesthetic, philosophical, archaeological and historical context, the interested reader may wish to refer to another book: Ahuja, Naman P. The Body in Indian Art and Thought (Ludion, Belgium, 2013; also published in Dutch as India Belichaamd and in French as Corps de'Inde). That book was published on the occasion of the exhibition in Belgium.
While maintaining the same basic structure as well as drawing on some parts of it, this book presents a more descriptive and synoptic view of the objects themselves as well as the overarching ideas of galleries in which they are placed.
It employs a standard transliteration into English of Indian languages, using diacritical marks in the explanatory narrative. However, for ease of reading by all, labels and captions have been transliterated into their commonly-used English equivalents. Thus, labels read 'Krishna' while the text reads 'Krsna.' In cases where Prakrit words are so divergent from Sanskrit ones as to prohibit ease of understanding, Sanskrit terms have been used. Arabic and Persian are also transliterated into their most commonly accepted forms of romanization. However, where Hindustani words better express concepts as they are understood in India, these have been substituted. Place names are provided in standard modern usage rather than in transliterated roman script.

Rupa- Pratirupa: The Body in Indian Art of the largest exhibitions of classical art staged in the last 25 years. Sourced from 42 museums and cultural instiutions in India, this exhibition of over artworks is presented in eight themes. The eight sections in this book relate to the galleries in the exhibition. They are designed to balance each other. If concepts d the death of the body inform our understanding of how it is memorialized, represented and made eternal in Gallery d as of how immortal bodies are represented form the subject of Gallery 5. While matters of cosmology and fate are concern of Gallery 4, what inspires righteous action and individual agency is ted in Gallery 6. Creation, birth and itself, determined by desire, miracles and forces beyond human control, are discussed in Gallery 3, while Gallery 7 shows how human ascetical power can conquer desire and rebut societal norms. And while Gallery 2 explores how 'truth' cannot be represented in bodily form in transient and illusory life, Gallery 8 is premised on the idea that the aesthetic sensorium of art is itself 'truth.'
The artworks are assembled to provoke larger questions: Where do society's archetypes of heroism and valour rest, for example? What motivates abstinence and asceticism? How does a civilization view the rites of passage, death, and birth? To what extent do Indians believe that the body's fate is destined or predetermined, and to what degree is fortune in the hands of those people who shape it for themselves? Through art, the exhibition shows the body as a site for defining individual identity and negotiating power, and as a richly-layered exposition that reexamines classical history in the light of changing views of social exclusion, gender and sexuality.
The exhibition is conceived in a cyclical manner, both clockwise and anti-clockwise. Going anti-clockwise, it takes us from a celebration of the mundane physical body to its aspirations of heroism, asceticism and eventually to the divine and philosophical concepts that inform Indian sensibilities. Going the other way is a more challenging circuit that makes the viewer realize how much the metaphysical has informed our daily lives. Every gallery in this exhibition includes a modern or contemporary work, which either shows how contemporary India has inherited its legacies or serves as a counter-point, the voice of a modern society's dialogue with its past. Modern and contemporary artworks in the exhibition are not just from metropolitan studio practitioners but also from traditional craftspeople (folk and tribal') and from popular print culture.
The exhibition addresses complex ideas about the body from a range of Indian philosophies and across many periods of history. Such an undertaking could run the risk of collapsing difference or diversity and presenting a homogeneous, essentialized vision of India. An awareness of this has been constant in the curating of this exhibition. The plurality portrayed offers an opportunity to see how diversity is accommodated. Yet, India's diverse voices, opinions and expressions have not always had a harmonious coexistence. Dividing lines exist between religions and within religions. They exist among classes and castes, and between rural and urban, ancient and modern, male and female. Each gallery in this exhibition seeks to indicate these divides, for in the ruptures and interstices of differences lie the spaces in which historical continuities may be found.
The exhibition's framework permits us to scrutinize how cyclical views of time and cosmology intersect with linear histories; how ancient cultural concepts are invoked recurrently through historical eras, and how these histories influence and affect each present. At the same time, commentaries on texts by ancient and medieval writers, their reinterpretations, and the history of schisms within religious sects are fundamental to the presentation of a historically-informed reading of Indian art. Myth provides compelling archetypes with which individual histories have intersected to such an extent that they have emerged repeatedly through time, although with different inflections.
A project such as this presents many challenges. The libraries of the worlds of Sanskrit, Pali, Persian, Hindi, Tamil and other Indian languages are probably the largest surviving literary corpus of any civilization in the world. Vast bodies of material interweave history, myth, science, psychology and fiction with liturgical ritual texts, making it very difficult to posit neat chronologies when looking at art. The work of art may be from one age, for example, and thus historically grounded, while its subject matter could well be drawn from earlier ideas. Myths current in past times continue to survive in later sculptures or paintings. Sometimes myth is invoked to legitimize the political status of patrons who see identification with mythical gods and heroes as lending them strength. Further, these myths may never have been part of an elite literary tradition but may have come from traditions of folklore. And sometimes, myths, cosmologies and rituals are altered to accommodate new ideas and exigencies.
The importance of the body in Indian culture is visible in many ways. Entire temples have been devoted to parts of the body. The most sacred goddess temples, for instance, hark back to the myth of the body of Devi, which fell in different parts of the country. The myth is common all over Hindu India, and several regions claim to temples dedicated to the same part body. As many as seven temples are ftClDgl1lized as places where the goddess's are believed to be fossilized. Other places are venerated for containing the r of the prophet Muhammad or a relic the Buddha, and others as places where body of a saint is buried. It is these t make places sacred, and often define routes of pilgrimage. The corporeal body is also the stuff of ritual: it performs the ritual; it offers itself to ritual, and parts of body are even used in rituals - thigh- bones are turned into trumpets and skulls used as feeding or begging bowls. The body may be a site of magic: nails and hair often referred to in popular beliefs and rituals, and hair is commonly sacrificed, sometimes symbolizing the renunciation f power, and at other times the surrender vanity. The body's parts may be made to talismans in silver, wood, precious stones or gold, and offered to a temple, a deity, a prophet or a seer in the hope that these mimetic offerings will bring a cure to the ailing body. The rituals of Tantra extensively incorporate the body, delving into, interiorizing and making personal such systems of knowledge that otherwise seem distant from society. Body fluids - blood, bile, semen, milk - are also highly symbolic, ritually used, medically treated and inspected to determine the fate of a body. These beliefs, rituals and practices are of no minor relevance to the history of a civilization and its fundamental ways of thinking about the body. However, the anatomical, physical, corporeal matter of the body is not, directly, the chief concern of this book or exhibition. Instead, we focus on what are the wider cultural factors, fundamental mythic archetypes and historical imperatives that can lead to a more informed understanding of what drives the representation of the body.
This provides a context for an art- historical appreciation of the body and its varied representations, and within this to look beyond the interpretative imperatives of iconography to iconology, allowing artworks to be placed within cultural contexts shaped as much by history as by aesthetic philosophy. Art production in most pre-modern societies was largely informed by religion, and thus comparative religious histories must provide an interpretive framework. The myths portrayed in the exhibition have been selected with care as they offer an empathetic reading of a civilization. But their points are not laboured in the hope that their rich metaphors can convey what was originally intended. Each gallery presents a few different examples of myths, poems and legends that demonstrate varied opinions. This apart, the objects have been selected as much for their visual appeal as for their importance in representing a plural history. Information has been drawn primarily from Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. It is not used to serve as a general introduction to these religions but to see how they inform our appreciation of their material cultures. This makes it possible to present a variety of ideas that may not be conveyed if one were to study orthodox doctrines and sacred texts alone.


  Foreword VII
  Preface 1
  Introduction 5
1 Death: The Body is But Temporary 8
2 The Body Beyond the Limits of Form 28
3 [Re] Birth: 50
  [1] Light, Sound, Desire - Creation 52
  [2] Mothers: Graceful Creators and Dangerous protectors 64
  [3] Miraculous children 78
4 The Body in the Cosmos 88
5 The Body Ideal: Supernatural 108
6 The Body Ideal: Heroic 138
7 The Body Ideal: Ascetic 162
8 Rapture: The Body of Art 186
  Exhibition Music and Soundtrack


"Woman in Indian Sculpture" - Bestselling Books on Indian Art

About the Book
This monograph, first of its kind, surveys the female sculptures created by Indian artists through centuries, from an ancient era of Indus Valley Civilization to medieval times. Archaeological data is interpreted in the light of literary and cultural traditions of India.
'This work is not only a book about art, it is also an important document that has captured the significance of woman in traditional Indian society and richness of her life as she enacts her part in the drama of social life. Thus in addition to depicting women and the beauty of their form, this book provides the readers with glimpse in life and cosmology of ancient India.
'The reader is treated to range and variety of woman in all her manifest forms, from gentle to beautiful to wild and terrible'.
'The author has stressed the image of Indian women as icons of fertility, bounty and fruition.
' Various images the sculptors conceived of her as Mother Goddess, Yakshi, Devangana and Surasundari, Lover par excellence, One as found of Wine, Dance and Music, Shringara Nayika, paragon of Beauty and Intellect and also embodiment of forces of death and destruction, and made into sculptures, are described here in very lucid language, to give the readers an insight into Indian art.

About the Author
M.L. Varadpande, having well informed knowledge and appreciation of art, culture and literary heritage of India, is widely known for his erudition and scholarship. Author of many books he is associated with many academic and cultural institutions of repute. His major publications are:
Traditions of Indian Theatre
Krishna Theatre in India
Mahabharata in Performance
Ancient Indian and Indo-Greek Theatre
Religion and Theatre
Dictionary of Indian Culture
History of Indian Theatre, Vols. I,II,III
Sripad Krishna kolhatkar
(Published by the Sahitya Akademi, National Akademi of Letters, in Marathi, Hindi, Punjabi and other Indian languages)

This volume on the Woman in Indian Sculpture has stressed the image of the Indian woman as an icon of fertility, bounty and fruition. The author has written about the poetic conceit of the woman and the tree, quickening each other to flower and fruit, about yakshis apotheosizing the life impulse and vibrations of nature, about nayikas epitomizing the various games and overtures of love, and, about dancers and musicians, entertaining people or their gods. He has illustrated the image of the Indian woman through allusions to literature and the arts. The goddess, in her beneficent or terrible beauty, complements the image of woman as a creative and procreative person, a creature of nature and culture. Even though the author has offered an exposition of the conventional and popular view of the Indian woman, he still offers clues to help us transcend this view, and to explore the myriad possibilities, fulfilments and longings of Indian womanhood.

The female form is a delicate topic that can easily be misrepresented to border on the crass. It takes a scholar of the range and depth of M.L. Varadpande to execute this theme with the sensitivity and vision that one finds in this work. Varadpande has collected material in the form of photographs and descriptions of icons and sculptures from ancient India and embellished them with a text that speaks volumes about the range of knowledge possessed by the author.
The writing is based on sound scholarship yet entertains with the simple beauty of its prose. This book illustrates the manifold dimensions of woman's life in ancient India and her symbolic and cosmological significance. The nayika of Sanskrit literature is here captured in the splendour of her visual beauty. The myriad of forms in which the woman appears in Indian sculptures illustrate the multiple faces of her personhood and roles played by her in society. This work is not only a book about art; it is also an important social document that has captured the significance of woman in traditional Indian society and the richness of her life as she enacts her part in the drama of social life. Thus in addition to depicting women and the beauty of their form, this book provides the reader with a glimpse into life and cosmology of ancient India. The reader is treated to a range and variety of the woman in all her manifest forms, from the gentle and beautiful to the wild and terrible and yet in each form she is captivating and fascinating. The collection of photographs that accompany the text are of a high quality. In describing them the author has drawn upon the history of art, literature, mythology and his own interpretations. The term form is not limited to the external morphology only but to the inner dimensions of the woman, her emotions and qualities of mind and intellect. Woman is not a mere object but a symbol of the qualities of the universe of life and its energy, both creative and destructive. She is mother, lover and destroyer, embodying in herself both the positive and negative forces of the universe. This book illustrates the broad vision about women in South Asia and its culture and religion. The sub- stratums of this culture were based on the worship of the Mother- goddess. Woman has never been trivialized in this region but has been an object of awe and worship. In the patriarchal world of today this book gives a glimpse of a past where woman still reigned in the splendour of her form. This is a rare book that entertains as well as educates.

Foreword 7
Introduction 9
The Beginning 13
Early Representation 15
Woman and Tree 21
Yakshi 31
Mathura Beauties 37
At Her Feet 47
Wine And Woman 55
Dancer 67
Musician-Instrumentalist 77
Devangana-Alasakanya 85
Shringara Nayika 93
Lover 107
Beauty And Intellect 119
Lover of Jewellery 125
Woman Terrible 133
Select Bibliography 145
List Of Illustrations 147


Montag, 21. September 2015