"Imitation is the best form of flattery"

Photographie, Malen mit Licht, Farben, Emotionen, Gefühle, Ausdruck, Mimik & Gestik, Poesie und Prosa - Bilder, Worte, Posen, Tanz, ... besser kann ich es im Moment eben auch noch nicht für mich definieren, "Kunst" eben, im weitesten Sinne des Wortes.

Donnerstag, 24. März 2016




About the Book
Vedavyasa emerged over the Indian Literary horizon, who besides working on the Vedas had also composed the epic of Mahabharta as well as the eighteen Puranas. The Up-puranas. Also are believed to have been composed by him and the Devi Mahabhagavata Purana, which comes under the category of the Up-Puranas is also attributed to him.

As compared to the other Puranic texts, Devi Purana could not gain much of importance as compared to the Visnu, Siva, Markandeya or the Bhagavata Purana etc. This Puranc is mainly dedicated to the exploits of the Universal Mother or Jagadamba, whose personality has been projected quite force full in this Purana. Basides other episods, the events of the marriage of Sati and Parvati with Siva have been lively projected, besides highlighting the lively projected, besides highlighting the lives of Siva, Sri Rama, others distus like Indra and others. The most interesting aspect of these projections are the projections of ten Mahavidyas by Sati before Siva, and Siva’s appearing as Radha and Parvati’s, appearing a Krsna on earth. This is a unique aspect of the Purana the Parallel of which is rarely in other Puranas. Chapter 23, of this Purana displays the event of Siva reciting the thousand names stotra or Lalitasahasranama-stotra. In chapter 67, the text of Sivasahasranama is available, and in chapter 75, the stotra eilogusing Ganga with the hundred and eight names enshrined. With the above salient features of the Purana, I am confident that hthe work its translation would find with scholars as well as other readers.
About the Author
Dr. Shanti Lal Nagar a Graduate of the Pujab University has served the Archaeological Survey of Indian and the Ministry of Home Affairs for over four decades, curaticel and other capacities. He has to his credit the scientific documentation of over fifty thousand antiquities like sculptares, bronzes, paintings, pattery beads etc. ranging from the earliest times to the late medieval period. He was given an award by the Government of Himachal Pradesh in 1983 for his monograph on the antiquian remains in the state. He was also awarded a Fallowship, for his monograph on the Temples of Himachal Pradesh, during 1987-89, by the Indian Council of Historical research, New Delhi. He was given Anuvadesri award during 2007-8, by the Bharatiya Anuvada Parisad, NewDelhi.

He has been associated with the Government of Sikkim, as consultant for the setting up of the sculptures of the Hindu deities on the basis on the basis of the related provisions of the Ancient Indian iconography for over four years, which has since been completed. He had been entrusted with the bringing out of two publications on the Sikkim project known as Siddhivara Dhama as well as (1) the Holy land of the Kiratesvara Mahadeva, both of which have since been completed. The first one has been published by the Sikkim Government, while the other one is under print.






About the Book
 
This book comprises the first part of Saundarya Lahari (The Upsurging Billow of Beauty), popularly known Ananda Lahari, covering the first forty-one verses.

This poetic work has fascinated generations of scholars and layperson with the sublime beauty of the verses in praise of the Devi, but also puzzled people by the authorship of Sankara. The text is a protolinguistic composition using a pictorial language of images. Beauty, elevated to the highest level, provides content to the otherwise abstract notion of the Absolute. The absolute joy of Advaita is presented subjectively as ananda and objectively as saundarya.

This tenth-century hymn to the Devi is a poetic restatement by the philosopher Sankara of his strict Advaita Vedanta monism. In compelling series of verses, Sankara draws in many strands of India’s heritage and braids them into a vision of luminous, transcendent Beauty.

The present commentary by Guru Nitya Chaitanya Yati grew out of his class of intimate meditations. He has integrated the academic disciplines of aesthetics, linguistics, and psychology with contemplation into a comprehensive study of creative manifestation. The heterodox Tantric Sri Vidya schools are centered on the realistic worship of the Devi Goddess and the Sri Cakra. Keeping in line with contemplation, the Appendix provides 53 meditations on the Sri Cakra.

About the Author
Guru Nitya Chaitanya Yati (1923-1999) was born into a family of scholars and poets in Kerala Stath India. He was in the spiritual hierarchy of the mystic Narayana Guru and was a direct disciple of Nataraja Guru, who founded the Narayana Gurukula, a worldwide contemplative fraternity, and the East West Universe of Brahmavidya. In his youth Guru Nitya spent several years as wandering mendicant, studying with traditional teachers from a variety of spiritual traditions. As a scholar of philosophy and psychology, Guru Nitya had been a professor at colleges throughout India; in addition he had travelled and taught in Europe, Australia and America. While specializing in India’s inheritance of wisdom, he was full versed in modern academic thinking as well, with special emphasis on the field of psychology. His contemplative absorption gave him the grace of mystical envisioning.


Foreword
 
Within the historical panorama of Bharata, or Greater India, numerous philosophical and religious traditions have flourished and over the centuries many of these strands have intermingled, creating a dense and rich cultural horizon. Emerging from this background is the Saundaryalahari; a Sanskrit poem of 100 verses, it is a work both vital and enigmatic. The Saundaryalahari is claimed as an essential text by the Tantric Srividya schools, a heterodox form of Hindu worship centered on the Devi, or goddess. At the same time, it is also considered to be one of the final works of the ninth-century philosopher Sankaracarya, staunchest proponent of Advaita Vedanta (non-dual monism). The position that the Saundaryalahari occupies between these two often contradictory traditions highlights essential characteristics of the history of Indian philosophy and of the poem itself.

From the prehistoric Indus Valley culture of Mohenjo-Daro through its conquest by the Aryans, the incursions of Central Asian nomads, Arab traders, and finally to Mogul conquest and European colonization, Indian cultural development has relied upon recurring revaluations of earlier thought in the light of challenging new interactions. Each era has remolded its philosophical inheritance to its own necessities. When Sankara was wandering throughout India as mendicant teacher and writing his vast, erudite commentaries on the Upanisads, the major factoer on the cultural field were:

. a degenerate Hinduism that was both exaggerated and divided;
. the proliferation of heterodox practices under the umbrella of this degeneration;
.a strong challenge to Hinduism by intellectually spare, reform-minded Buddhism;
.and the expansion of south India Kingdoms and culture into South-East Asia, coupled with the cosmopolitan urbanity of the

Malabar Coast (home to Sankara) where Christian, Christian, Chinese, and Indian traditions converged along trade routes.

Upon this multivalent stage, Sankara began his bhasyas (commentaries). In these and in has famous debates with Buddhist philosophers, Sankara resurrected and reinvigorated the essential philosophical insights of the early Upanisadic rsis. The Upanisads present uncompromising vision of unified Beingness which is seamless, without division in time or space, and which sustains all the variegated individualities we relate to in our transactional lives. It is this world-view that Sankara restated in a form unembellished by religious dogma.
Numerous schools flourished at this time and they practiced a spirituality which consciously contradicted all the strictures of a classist, authoritarian Brahminism. Debate and rebuttal had been Sankara’s procedure with a distorted Hinduism and its rival Buddhism. With Tantra the revaluation was more subtle. A deep veneration for the primal energy of manifestation, sakti, often personified as the goddess or Devi, is the potent nucleus of Tantra that Sankara extricated from its ritualistic encrustations. In his two final works, the Saundaryalahari and the Sivanandalahari, Sankara used Tantra’s intense and intimate identification with feminine nature to sculpt his poetic presentation of essential Upanisadic truth. In the Saundaryalahari, he draws on the deepest of Indian traditions, its Dravidian contemplative culture (often thought to be the prehistoric source of Tantric practice), to restate in a refined manner the same spare insights of his Advaita commentaries. By drawing in and sublimating the devotional and heterodox currents of his time, Sankara enriches the strict purity of his philosophy.

The Sundaryalahari is divided into two, sometimes three, distinct sections. The first forty–one verses are the Anandalahari, often separately published, as is done here, and considered the most important section of the book. The second section consists of verses 42 through 100; verses 92 through 100 are sometimes grouped as a third section. Together these sections comprise the Saundaryalahari. Lahari translates intoxication or “an overwhelming subjective or objective experience of an item of intelligence or of beauty upsurging in the mind of man” (Nataraja Guru). The factor of intoxication or flooding or flooding of consciousness is present throughout all sections of the book. In the first forty-one verses, ananda is used in the of delight or bliss and refers to that experience of value which is subjectively appreciated. Saundarya refers to beauty, to an aesthetic value appreciation which is objective. Taken together, ananda (delight) and saundarya (beauty) constitute an overwhelming, intoxicating experience which is subjective and objective, inward and outward, one that permeates consciousness and allows a person to participate in the continuous pulsation of the neutral Absolute into magnetic, compelling manifestation of Beauty.

In the last 1,200 years, there have been innumerable publications of the Saundaryalahari in India, some with commentaries, some with accompanying paintings of the goddess, many with a variety of mantras or yantras for each of the verses. It has continued to be used as devotional text, its verses chanted and meditated upon. However, until 1958 when the Harvard Oriental Series edition by Professor Norman Brown was published, there had been only two publication of the Saundaryalahari in any European language. Brown’s translation and comments are well grounded in an honest, thoughtful appreciation of the They falter, however, on his too cautious, academic literalism, and very little of the Saundaryalahari’s poetic or mystical tenor is allowed to come forth.

In 1988 an English translation commentary by Nataraja Guru was published by East-West University in India. Nataraja Guru brought to bear on his study of the Saundaryalahari a philosophical vision steeped in the multiple cross-currents that were formed by the intersection of Indian tradition and the disciplines of modern Western science. The son of a prominent social reformer of south India, Nataraja Guru received his first degrees in zoology and geology. He went on to a D.Litt. in educational philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris, later teaching at Quaker school in Geneva, Switzerland. This varied background nurtured in him an ability to analyze beneath surface appearance to structural foundations and to look for interdisciplinary coherence.




Introduction
 
According to the traditional psychology of Vedanta, the Absolute is conceived both as the transcendental para and the immanent apara. In slightly modified sense, Tantra calls these Siva and Sakti, respectively. There are mythological stories describing Siva as the destroyer of the three cities, Tripurantaka, a city (pura) being a multi-structured matrix of human interest. These there of man;s interests are the worlds of the cosmos, of ethos or social culture, and of the psyche.

Man is interested in the cosmic phenomena to which his place of habitation, the green earth, belongs. In the city of the cosmos he has the starry heavens that conceal within themselves system upon system, from the nebular to the biological. Within the system of his own solar orbit, man relates the events of his life to the rotations of the planets, the waxing and waning of the moon, the equinoxes of the sun, the change of the seasons, the sea, and the cyclones and earthquakes which expose him to the caprice of fateful chance. Man’s city of the cosmos ranges from the glistening dew drops on the rose in his garden to the infinite that stretches far beyond the farthest star which has not yet kissed the earth with its beams of light. This city is full of awe, enormous and sublime. By its quantitative or qualitative might, this cosmos shocks man and fills him with pain at his own smallness, then fills him with a feeling of exaltation at the greatness of his own moral nature, which is “loftier than all the splendors of the outer world” (Immanuel Kant). The second city of man is the “moral world below” which is festooned with smiles and tears. It is here man lives with his fellow men and women in love and hatred, where he marries and begets children, and husbands land and rears cattle. It is here that he trades with all that can be purchased and sold, including war and peace, and morality and justice. Sociology and commerce, economics and politics are the pastimes of this city. Here man erects school and legislative houses, jail and concentration camps, temples of god, and art emporiums. He revels here in his operas and theatres. From this city man shoots his missiles to the distant planets. He performs impossible feats in medicine feats in medicine and surgery to save rare human life, and then with the same ease of conscience plugs in the wires of electric chairs to wipe out those whom he fears. Man lives in this second city called samsara weaving tales of fret and fume signifying and seeing visions of beauty, truth, and goodness.
Man’s third city lies in the crevice of his brain and in the cave of his heart. It is the realm of his psyche. The face of this city is man’s surface consciousness that changes its hues from the pink rose of morning’s glory to the terrifying dark of dreadful night. It is in this world that man becomes erotic or sarcastic, compassionate or destructive, heroic or frightful. Mysteries and marvels of the unknown fill this city with wonder or fear that ever remain a secret to man. It is in this innermost city that man listens to the call of the Absolute and longs for liberation. It is just here that he receives the all-consuming light of the third eye of Siva, the burner of the three cities, the Tripurantaka.

Siva sets ablaze the spark of individual consciousness into an all-devouring conflagration, which ultimately burns away Time and Space and all the phenomenal names and forms that give content and structure to the three cities of the cosmos (brahmanda), politikos (samsara), and psychos (ahamkara). The counterpart of Tripurantaka is Tripurasundari, the beauty that bathes the above-said three cities of man with her eternal glory and veiling maya. In all the three cities, the city of the heavenly galaxy and nature, the city of interpersonal relationships, and the city of the libido and subliminal psychic underworld, man stands spellbound by the beauty of Tripurasundari. He is enlightened by the truth of her wisdom. He is inspired by her never-failing law, her ingenious sense of structure, and her unsurpassed goodness. In the eastern skies of the unchanging Siva, Tripurasundari paints in gold and purple the dawn of creation. In his midday skies she sets the clock of action, Karma cakra, which keeps the wheel of samsara whirling into cyclic rhythms. In his evening skies she paints the dissolution of all that vanishes behind the crimson veil of the dying sun.


Contents

Acknowledgmentvii
Guide to Sanskrit Pronunciationvii
Forewordxiii
Photographic Creditsxx
Introduction1
Verse One3
Verse Two6
Verse Three8
Verse Four12
Verse Five14
Verse Six17
Verse Seven20
Verse Eight23
Verse Nine27
Verse Ten33
Verse Eleven36
Verse Twelve39
Verse Thirteen42
Verse Fourteen44
Verse Fifteen48
Verse Sixteen52
Verse Seventeen55
Verse Eighteen60
Verse Nineteen63
Verse Twenty67
Verse Twenty-one70
Verse Twenty-two73
Verse Twenty-three85
Verse Twenty-four88
Verse Twenty-five92
Verse Twenty-six95
Verse Twenty-seven98
Verse Twenty-eight101
Verse Twenty-nine104
Verse Thirty107
Verse Thirty-one109
Verse Thirty-two112
Verse Thirty-three116
Verse Thirty-four120
Verse Thirty-five124
Verse Thirty-six127
Verse Thirty-seven131
Verse Thirty-eight134
Verse Thirty-nine137
Verse Forty140
Verse Forty-one143
Appendix: Meditation on Sricakra147
Verse One152
Verse Two153
Verse Three155
Verse Four156
Verse Five158
Verse Six159
Verse Seven160
Verse Eight161
Verse Nine162
Verse Ten163
Verse Eleven165
Verse Twelve166
Verse Thirteen167
Verse Fourteen168
Verse Fifteen170
Verse Sixteen172
Verse Seventeen174
Verse Eighteen177
Verse Nineteen179
Verse Twenty180
Verse Twenty-one182
Verse Twenty-two184
Verse Twenty-three186
Verse Twenty-four188
Verse Twenty-five190
Verse Twenty-six192
Verse Twenty-seven193
Verse Twenty-eight195
Verse Twenty-nine196
Verse Thirty198
Verse Twenty-one201
Verse Twenty-two204
Verse Twenty-three207
Verse Twenty-four209
Verse Twenty-five212
Verse Twenty-six214
Verse Twenty-seven216
Verse Twenty-eight219
Verse Twenty-nine220
Verse Forty222
Verse Forty-one224
Verse Forty-Two226
Verse Forty-three228
Verse Forty-four229
Verse Forty-five231
Verse Forty-six235
Verse Forty-seven236
Verse Forty-eight238
Verse Forty-nine240
Verse fifty242
Verse Fifty-one244
Verse Fifty-two247
Verse Fifty-three250
Index252

Sri Kalka Putanam - The tenth incarnation of Lord Visnu in the form of Kalki has delineated in Kalkipurana


The tenth incarnation of Lord Visnu in the form of Kalki has delineated in Kalkipurana. Kali was born after the departure of Lord Visnu for his heavenly abode Vaikuntha whence the whole populace became immoral, corrupt and incorrigible. All the gods with Earth in forefront and Lord Brahma went to the abode of Visnu and brifed Hin about the avils of Kali.

On hearing this Lord Visnu incanated in the form of Lalki to annihilate Kali, establish Krtayuga and promote Dharma. The whole story of the incarnation of Lord Kalki has been given profoundly in 1366 verses.
Although the incidents are yet to happen in future they have delineated as having happened the past. Kalkipurana has neither been translated in Hindi nor English. Therefore, a connoisseur has been deprived of having its nectar like taste. Hence for a seeker of knowledge an English translation with original Sanskrit text alongwith relevant notes explanations is produced here. An attempt has also been made to explain complicated, deep and oblique verses.
About the Author
 
Dr. (Mrs) Pushpa Gupta passed B.A. Hons in Sanstrit with 1st position in 1965 from in M.A. IN 1987. She was awardwd Ph.D. degree also from Delhi University.

She joined Lakshmibai college as a lecturer in 1969 and retired as Associate Professor in 2011 from there only.

Dr. Gupta was a member of the editorial board of carya Ratna Sri Desabhusanaji Maharaja Abhinansana Grantha released by forms President of India Jnani Zaila Singhaji. She presented more than 40 research papers on different subjects in national and international conferences and seminars most of which have been published in different journals.

Sanskrit Siksaka Sammana, Sanskrit Samararadhaka Sammana (7 times), Hindi Sevi Sammana, Rastriya Hindi Sevi Sahasrabdi Sammana, Bharata Excellence Award and Mahila Sri Sammana have been bestowed on her.

Dr. Gupta organized a two day National Seminar on “Relevance of Sanskrit and its Literature in moder globalization” sponsored by U.G.C.
Foreword
 
Kalkipurana contains a description of the ten tenth incarnation of Lord Visnu Kalki who is yet to be born
Sutaji narrated the same story of Kalki incarnation to sages Sanaka etc. when asked in Naimisaranya as the one told Brahma to the divine sage Narada and later expounded by Narada to Maharsi Vyasa. It is to be noted that though future happening have been delineated in Kalkipurana as to how after the departure of Lord Visnu for his heavenly abode Vaikuntha, Kaliyuga manifested itself to which sin, Adharma, lawlessness etc. became rapant all over.

Then Lord Visnu on being rquessted by the godes assured them that he would take birth in the house of king Visnuyasa and Sumati and after annilating all barbarians, Yavanas, atheists, Buddhists etc. alongwith Kali would re-established Dharma and Krtayauga and would return to Vikuntha.
All tese happening have been related in this Purana in such a manner as if they have already taken place in the past. It was at all impossible for the omniscient rsis and sages to visualize the future happening and describe them in detail.

The three parts of Kalkipurana consist of chapters and 1366 verses. There are seven chapters in Part I, seven Part II, and 21 in the III past wherein the qwhole of Kalki incarnation has been desrible explicitly in meaningful words. The valorous deeds of Lord Kalki have propounded in the form of a tale. The chapter ‘About Kikipurana’ while expounding the Purana throws light on its peculiarities that the five characteristics of te Puranas i.e. SARGA, Pratisarga, Vamsa, Manvantra and Vamsanucarita are duly wound in this Kalkipurana.

Contemporary political, social, economic, geographical and religious all aspects have enhanced the prominence and beauty of this Purana.
Thereafter, the summary of 35 chapter of the three parts has been delineated very briefly so that a connoisseur my get a glimpse of the Purana.

Once while talking to Mr. Ravi Malhotra, the proprietor of Eastern Book Linkers, I learnt that only the original Sanskrit text of Kalkipurana was available. Hearing this I was astonished with sorrow that such an important and interesting Kalkipurana because of the non-availability of its translation has deprived many knowledge seekers from its taste and how many will still be deprived. Hence, the English translation alongwith the original Sanskrit text is being produced here for a seeker to quench his by its nectar like taste.
There are some parts in this Purana which are obscure, deep and difficult. A sinere effort has been made to clarify and explain such verses for uninterrupted pleasure of a reader.
I am obliged to Mr. Ravi Malhotra on whose motivation this work could be produced. A Hindi translatin of the Kalkipurana is also available now for the good heated readers.

Contents
(i)Forewordv
(ii)About Kalkipuranavii
(iii)Summary of Kalkipuranaxxi
(iv)Contents of Kalkipuranaxxxv

Part I

Chapter I (i)Introduction1
(ii)Saunaka etc. enquire abot future from Sutaji2
(iii)Suka attains Kailkipurana2
(iv)Kali is born3
(v)Description of Kaliyuga3
(vi)Evils of Kaliyuga4
(vii)The gods visit Brahmaloka accopanied by Earth5
(viii)Descitipon of the Brahmaloka5
Chapter 2 (i)Evils of Kali are exposed before Brahmaji by the gods6
(ii)Departure of Brahma and gods for Vaikuntha7
(iii)The gods submit their ewquest to Visnu7
(iv)Decision of Visnu to incarnate in the house of Visnuyasa7
(v)Sumati, the ife of Visnuyasa becomes pregnet8
(vi)Gods celebrate the birth of Visnu8
(vii)Visnu forgoes his four armed image in favour of two armed one9
(viii)Arrival of Parasurama, Krpa etc. for a glimpse of Kalki9
(ix)Naming of Kalki9
(x)Father preaches Kalki at His sacred thread ceremony10,11
Chapter 3 (i)Kalki's departure for gurukul and the arrival of Jamadagni12
(ii)Kalki studies Vedas, archery etc.12
(iii)Kalki wants to pay guru-daksina12
(iv)Kalki's eulogy of Siva and a glimpes of Siva at Vilvodakesvara13
(v)Appearnce of Siva alongwith Parvati and their granting a boon to Kalki14
(vi)Kalki receives a hourse, sword and a Suka (parrot) from Siva14
(vii)Kalki returns home15
(viii)Kalki expounds the duties of four asramas26
Chapter 4 (i)Kalki talk about religion17
(ii)Characteristic of bramanas18,19
(iii)Description of Simhala island by Suka20
(iv)Description of princess Padma20,21
(v)Padma receive a boon from Sivaji21
Chapter 5 (i)A svayamvara is arranged for Padma22
(ii)Womanhood for the expectant kings24
Chapter 6 (i)Lamentation of Padma25
(ii)Kalki orders Suka to go to Padma25
(iii)Conversation of Padma and Suka26
Chapter 7 (i)Description of the worship of Visnu29

Part II

Chapter 1(i)Suka expoundes the incarnation in front of Padma35
(ii)Suka returns to Sambhala37
(iii)Conversation of Kalki and Suka37
(iv)Departure of Kalki for Simhala island38
Chapter 2 (i)Padma approaches Kalki41
(ii)Padma sees Kalki42
Chapter 3 (i)Lkings regain masculinity on seeing Kalki46
(ii)The Kings eulogise Kalki46
Chapter 4 (i)Arrival of sage Ananta50
(ii)Sage Ananta narrates his story51
Chapter 5 (i)Sage Ananta sights the swan56
(ii)Description to LORD'S Maya57
Chapter 6 (i)Indra orders Visvakarma to build a city in Sambhala64
(ii)Return to Kalki with his Padma to Sambhala64
(iii)Kalki begets a son67
(iv)Description of Kalki city68
Chapter 7 (i)War with buddhists69
(ii)Annihilation of Jina, the king of buddhists72
(iii)Victory over the buddhists74

Part III

Chapter 1 (i)Victory over the barbarians75
(ii)Battle of Kalki with barbarian women folk76
Chapter 2 (i)Arrival of Balakhilyas81
(ii)Description opf Kuthodari, the daughter of demon Nikumbha81
(iii)The departure of Kalki for destruction of Kuthodari82
(iv)The killing of Kuthodari84
Chapter 3 (i)Arrival of sages Narada etc.86
(ii)Description of Solar dynasty by king Maru87
(iii)Sri Ramacritam88
(iv)Sri is abondoned93
(v)Sita's acceptance by mother Earth93
(vi)Rama's departure for heavens93
Chapter 4 (i)Dynasty of Rama and birth of king Maru94
(ii)Birth of king Devapi in the Lunar dynasty95
(iii)Kings Devapi and Maru receive divine chariots97
Chapter 5 (i)Onset of Krtayuga98
(ii)Description of Mavnataras99
(iii)Kalki prepares for war100
Chapter 6 (i)Kalki proceeds to conquer the world101
(ii)Meeting proceeds to conquer the world101
(iii)Submissin of Dgarma before Kalki102
(iv)Battle of Kalki with Kalki104
(v)Battle of MARU, Devapi etc. with Khasa, Kamboja, Varvara, Cina etc.105
Chapter 7 (i)The defeat of the followers of Kalki106
(ii)Kalki fights and Vikoka107
(iii)Death of Kaka and Vikoka109
Chapter 8 (i)KALKI LEAVES FOR Bhallata City110
(ii)King Sasidhavja prepares for war111
(iii)Fight of King Sasidhvaja with Kalki and his army112
Chapter 9 (i)King Sasidhvaja carries unconscious Kalki to his home117
Chapter 10 (i)The song of Susanta118
(ii)Kalki marries the daughter of king Sasidhvaja121
Chapter 11 (i)The King ask Sasidhvaja the cause of hissupreme devotion123
(ii)King Sasdhvaja relates his past lives123
(iii)The characteristics of devotion125
Chapter 12 (i)Reason why Hari devotee king Sasidhvaja had to fight Kalki129
Chapter 13 (i) The narration og Dvivida, the monkey134
(ii)The description of Karsna incarnation135
Chapter 14 (i))Kalki enters Kancani city138
(ii)Conversation with poison damsel (Visakanya)138
(iii)Kalki anoints his followers as kings of different places140
(iv)Kalki returns to SAMBHALA140
(V)Satyayuga sets in141
Chapter 15 (i)Eulogy of Maya142
Chapter 16 (i)Visnuyasa starts Rajasuya sacrifice144
(ii)Arrival of divine sage Narada145
(iii)Conversation between Maya and Jiva147
(iv)Visnuyasaleaves for forests148
(v)Arrival of Parasurama, Krpa etc. for a glimpse of Kalki149
Chapter 17 (i)Description of Rukminivrata150
Chapter 18 (i)Kalki frolics with wives155
Chapter 19 (i)The gods arrive in Sambhala158
(ii)Kalki's departure for heavenly abode159
Chapter 20 (i)Ganga Stotram162
Chapter21 (i)Charonology of Kalkipurana165
(ii)Fruits of hearing Klkipurana168
(iii)Kalkipurana finishes169

Index of verses170
Sample Pages


Kamadeva - The God of Love


About the Book
Kamadeva, the charming wielder of the sugarcane bow and the flower-tipped arrow, born out of the wellspring of Brahma’s latent passion, has for long remained an enigma. This enthralling story of the God of Desire explores his many wondrous adventures, as well as his heady romance with Rati his chief consort.
Best friends with Indra, the Kings of the Gods; tutor to the Apsaras in the art of lovemaking, Kamadeva lives a dream life in the magnificent Kingdom of Amaravathi—until danger strikes when he incurs the wrath of Shiva because of a preordained curse. Follow Kama as the hurtles towards his destiny and the Destroyer’s dreaded third eye. Find out if he will rise from the ashes to reign supreme as the King of Hearts or if he will be doomed to spend an eternity as Ananga—the bodiless one.
In Kamadeva: The God of Desire, the author masterfully marries imagination with stellar research to bring to vivid life one of the most intriguing Gods of the Hindu pantheon. Laced with wit and narrated in contemporary flavour. Kamadeva will take you on a rollicking ride into the heart of desire and its tantalizing dark side.



About the Author
Anuja Chandramouli graduated from Women’s Christian College, Chennai, and was the college topper in Abnormal Psychology. She also holds a Master’s degree in English. Currently she is studying classical dance and working on her next book. Her critically acclaimed debut novel, Arjuna: Saga of a Pandava Warrior-Prince, was named in a poll conducted by Amazon India as one of the top 5 books in the Indian Writing category for the year 2013. She is the mother of two little girls and lives in Sivakasi.

Contents

The Song of Kama 1
The Birth and the Curse 3
When Desire Met Sexul Delight 18
Spring, Pus-Filled Boils and Another Wife 37
The Stone Women 67
The Burning 100
Rati's Lament 128
The Demon's Bride and the Prophecy 144
The Estrangement and the Reunion 175
The Mother and the Lover 205
A Time for Love and Death 229
Picking Up the Pieces 247
A Taste of Blood, Glory and Romance 272
The Road to an Ending 294
Epilogue 321
Bibliography 327

Sixty-four Yoginis - Cult, Icons and Goddesses ...



About the Book
The Sixty-Four Yoginis are the lesser known forms of the Goddess Shakti in art and religion. Variously portrayed as malevolent goddesses, deities of tantric rituals, and yoginis of flesh and blood, they are seen as the sixty-four forms of the goddess and the sixty- four embraces of Shiva and Shakti. Abandoned temples, stretching from Banda in Uttar Pradesh to Bolangir in Odisha, were once witness to the evolution of the mysterious cult of these goddesses. Shrouded in secrecy, knowledge about them is, till date, closely guarded by the tantric Acaryas.

Sixty-Four Yoginis: Cult, Icons and Goddesses deciphers the complex forms of the Yoginis by engaging with the subject historically, aesthetically, theologically and anthropologically; identifies the Yoginis of the temple, of the Puranas, of the tantric texts, of folklore and finally of the Yogini Kaula; and examines the different layers of the complex phenomena based on rigorous fieldwork in the hitherto untraversed terrains where the Yoginis have their abode. The book offers valuable insights for researchers in the fields of religion, myth, culture, history and gender studies. The text of this handsomely produced volume is supplemented with a rich collection of photographs.

About the Author
Anamika Roy is Associate Professor at the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad.
Her interest in art and religious history shaped the contours of the present work. Her publications include Amaravati Stupa: A Critical Comparison of Epigraphic, Architectural and Sculptural Evidence and Brahmi Inscriptions of Northern India, and the co-edited volume Perspectives on Comparative Religion.



Preface
IN 2002, a chance visit to the Yogini Temple at Bheraghat in Jabalpur, led to a long academic journey into the mysterious and esoteric world of the Yoginis. Little did I realize while working on this project that this journey would turn out to be an enduring pursuit of what was a forbidden realm. As I was not initiated in the Tantras, a number of Acaryas were not forthcoming in revealing their secrets, the villagers were hesitant of the wrath of the Yoginis and the drivers were reluctant to drive into the interiors. In these moments of anxiety and frustration, what kept me going was the statement of one of my teachers that the work will be completed only by the wishes and the blessings of the Yoginis. Though it has taken long to complete this, the Yoginis appear to be finally pleased with me.

In this eventful journey, I am indebted to the different Acaryas for having shown the way, though I am forbidden by tradition to record their names, despite their reluctance, I did manage to engage in valuable dialogue with them. I would like to thank the drivers, local guides and the villagers from Banda (Uttar Pradesh) to Bolangir (Odisha), who helped me in their own ways. I am also thankful to my teachers, colleagues, and friends, who though encouraging, were apprehensive for this project and expressed it at different stages. I acknowledge my gratitude to Professors Vidya Dehejia, Kamalesh Dutt Tripathi, Devangana Desai, Hari Priya Rangarajan, and Acarya Ram Chandra Shukla for their wisdom and to Stella for her encouragement and friendship. The comments and suggestions that came from the anonymous referee were extremely helpful in sharpening some arguments and removing ambivalences in others. I am beholden to the UGC for the Research Award which I availed for three consecutive years, for facilitating this research. I thank the library staff of the following Universities and Research Institutions: the Department of Ancient History Culture and Archaeology, Allahabad University; the National Museum Library Allahabad; G.N. Jha Sanskrit Institute, Allahabad; Sampoorna Nand Sanskrit University, Varanasi; Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi; and Darbar Hall, Nepal, for all the help they extended to me.

I am indebted to Anupama, Hemang and Pakhi, who found my passion to my work bizarre, but never complained, to Jai-critic, cameraman, and field work companion. I dedicate this work to my late parents Usha and Siddheshwari who through their own example, taught me the virtues of selflessness, of giving and sharing without expectations of return.

Introduction
WHO ARE THE Yoginis? When did their worship start and how were they W depicted? How can one identify a Yogini image? One may answer with diverse conceptual tools, going to tantricism, to art history, or to religious thought.

Yogini is a generic term. Always present in groups, Yoginis are of different types. Ascetics, there is a Yogini Dasha in astrology, Yoginis as attendants of the Goddess and so on. In some tantra texts, Yoginis are the deities of the directions. In the Kalika Parana it is said that the eight Yoginis should be worshipped before worshipping the Goddess. They are also supposed to be playing with the Bhairava. It could be the reason that in circular Yogini temples there is a Bhairava in the centre.

Yogini temples emerged from the AD 900-1200 and this was the period when most of the tantra texts and the Puranas were written. The Yogini temples stand distinct from the main stream of the temples. There is no Vimana, Shikhara, platform, or jangha. Most Yogini temples are circular and open to the sky. There are eighty-one, sixty- four, or forty-two niches in the inner wall to accommodate the Yogini images. The temple wall is not very high: from six to ten feet and the thickness is from twenty-five to one hundred and twenty-five feet. All these will be discussed in detail in Chapter 7.

The Yoginis and their worship did not have its origin in orthodox Hinduism. The Yoginis originated as simple local deities and village goddesses. With the spread of tantricism there was an elevation and transformation of these village deities. The texts were written for them and independent temples were built for them. As local deities they retained names such as Phanendri, Tarala, Tarini, and Badari. They were said to be sixty-four in number, figure that is said to be of convenience or auspicious. Thus village deities installed under trees or in a shrine, were assimilated as a group of sixty-four. The earliest reference to such ferocious deities may be found in the Gangadhar inscription of Mayurakshaka, AD 423-4. Mayurakshaka built a temple for the Matrikas along with Chamunda and it was surrounded by invisible Dakinis.

A second such important temple is mentioned in Skandagupta or Budhagupta's vihar inscription. It is significant as it mentions the erection of a yupa stambha and a temple for Skanda Matrikas, Bhadrarya or Bhadrakali. And Devaniketamandala, mandala here means either group of temples or yantra. Reference to temple of mothers may be found also in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana. Kalhana writes that Ishana Devi wife of king Jaluka, built matricakras, circle of mothers at a number of places of his empire. The Agni Purana mentions the method of carving of Yogini images. The Yogini images are usually huge: while body is sensuous, they may have fearful animal heads.

The tradition of the 'Yoginis' of the Yogini Kaula is preserved in some of the tantric texts of which the Kaulajnananirnaya is the most significant. The date of this manuscript is thought by RC. Bagchi to be no later than the 1100 AD. H.P. Sastri says that the manuscript is of AD 859. Abhinavagupta, however paid homage to Matsyendra Nath, it means he must be earlier than Abhinavagupta. The text consists of 1 ,000 verses and the MS belongs to the Darbar Hall Library No. 11.262 (H). The texts published do not bear the name of the author. Matsyendra Nath seems to be propounder of a section of the Kaulas known as Yogini Kaula school. There are 24 patalas in the book. It is in the dialogue form between Bhairava and Devi. It is about creation, destruction, moksha (liberation), meditation, rituals and how different types of Shaktis should be invoked and how different types of vessels should be used in rituals. Surprisingly, same arrangement is found in the Kularnava Tantra also. The conversation emphasizes the merit of the Shastra, which is known to each and every woman of Kamarupa. The most significant is that Bhairava informs the Devi that the Yoginis and Rudras can be worshipped either externally with flower, incense and offering or internally.
For the study of Sixty-Four Yogini's Matottara Tantra is also important. It is from Darbar Hall Library of Nepal edited by Janardan Pandey. It says that the followers of the Kaula path become specially dear to Yoginis. It also describes the Yoginis as capable of creating and destroying the world. Like most tantric texts it mentions Shiva at centre of the group of the Yoginis.

The Yogini Hridaya, also known as Nitya Hridaya and Sundari Hridaya is said to be one part of entire work known as the Nityashodashikarnava, the other part being often separately treated as the Vamakeshvara Tantra. This work which abounds in elliptical terms and code words is divided into three chapters corresponding to three parts (sanketa), described as chakra (or yantra), mantra and puja or worship.
Tantraloka is masterpiece of non dualistic Kashmir Shaivism. It contains the synthesis of the sixty-four monastic agamas and all works in both ritualistic and philosophical aspects. The condensed version of Tantraloka i known as Tantra Sara. Tantraloka is translated into Italian by Raniero Gnoli. The English translation by Mark Dyczkowski is still awaited. It mentions Macchendra Vibhu (Matsyendra Nath). Verse nos. 371 and 382 mention Yoginis, but it is not clear which Yogini they mean.

Vijnana Bhairava Tantra is a key text type of the trika school of Kashmir Shavism. It is discourse between Shiva and his consort. It briefly narrates the 112 methods of meditation. It mentions sixty-four Yoginis as Svara and Mantra on page numbers 98 and 172. It is edited by Jaideva Singh as Vijnana Bhairava or Divine Consciousness.

Tantra Raj Tantra is edited by Sir John Woodroff. Its verses 58-70 of Chapter VII narrate as to how to control Apsaras and Yakshinis. Chapters XVI and XVII deal with Dakinis. Verse 49 of Chapter XVII gives details of the rituals and fruits gained by them. Verses 50-58 mention the nature of 36 Yakshinis and verses 60-67 talk about 64 Chetakas. This text is supposed to be the king of all tantra texts, this is why it is called Tantra Raj Tantra.

The Tantra Sara Sangraha edited by Pt. M. Duraj Swami Aiyangar describes Yogini Nidra.
The Mahanirvana Tantra is edited by Arthur Avlon. It has 14 chapters. It also describes rituals for worshipping the Yoginis. Arthur Avlon says that some part of it is interpolation, and added by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Rudrayamala is used as a source by many other agamas, but the original appears to be lost.
Sri Kularnaoa Tantra is also a dialogue between Shiva and Parvati. Kularnaua Tantra is supposed to be situated in the hearts of the Yoginis. Abhinavagupta in his Tantraloka explains it like this. The process of dispensing of God through joy, knowledge and desire is known as Kauliki Shastra.

WHO WAS MATSYENDRA NATH?

It is said that Matsyendra Nath who started Yogini Kaula, was of Nath cult and was the first Nath. Women have no entry in the Nath cult. Matsyendra Nath deviated from his path for some time. He was engrossed in the company of women and introduced a new cult known as 'Yogini Kaula'.

The oldest known legend about Matsyendra Nath is preserved in the Kaulajnananirnaya. The date of which can be fixed around AD 1100-1200 as Abhinavagupta has mentioned Matsyendra Nath, he must have been born before Abhinavagupta. In the sixteenth chapter Shiva says that he is super hero among fishermen (V.II) and in the 21st and 22nd verses tells Devi that it was Shiva himself, who has revealed the secret knowledge to her at Kamarupa. This secret knowledge, Shastra was stolen by Kartikeya (V.29) and he threw it into the sea. The Bhairava (in the incarnation as Matsyendra Nath) went to the sea caught the fish, which has swallowed the Shastra. He cut the belly of the fish and recovered the Shastra.

Contents

List Of Illustrations vii
Preface Xlll
Introduction xv
Part I
1. Why Do The Yoginis Dance? 3
2. The Mask Of The Yogini 44
3. Small Goddesses And The Great Goddess 64
Part II
4. Yoginis In Tantric Tradition 73
5. Yoginis In Folklores 91
6 Yoginis As Tribal Deities 99
Part III
7. Yogini Temple Architecture: Beyond Convention 117
8. Patronage: Royality And Reality 131
Part IV
9. The Terrifying Beauties 141
10. Religion, Gender And Yogini Imageries 216
Conclusion 227
Locations And Narrations 233
Appendix: An Unreported Yogini Temple 309
Bibliography 329
Index 337

Donnerstag, 17. März 2016

Analyzing the Eternal Dimensions of Dharma Through Itihasa (History)

Here is a fragment from one of the most poignant episodes of Indian history. In this incident the eternal ideals, which are the foundations of Indian culture were horrifyingly violated, but at the same time, there shone out from this episode, the blazing fire of dharma, restoring our faith and eclipsing everything else in this tragic sequence of events. Above all, it highlights the essential greatness of Indian womanhood, the echo of which can still be found in the women of today.

This piece of history is from the Mahabharata. It begins with the Pandava king Yudhishthira losing his wife while gambling with his cousins. The eldest cousin Duryodhana, who wanted to humiliate the Pandavas, asked his younger brother Dushasana to go ahead and bring Draupadi, the queen of the Pandavas from her palace, dragging her out publicly to the court.

Dushasana went to the palace and said to her: "Draupadi! Come now, like your husbands, you too have been won over in gambling. Leave your modesty and look at Duryodhana. Come and serve us, the Kauravas."

The queen was shattered on hearing these words from her brother in law. She wiped her tears and ran in the direction of the palace where lived Duryodhana’s mother. Dushasana roared and rushing towards her, caught hold of her long, flowing hair. At that time Draupadi was in her periods and residing in her innermost chambers (according to the shastras a woman is supposed to rest away from family, social and religious duties when she is menstruating). She said to Dushasana: "You dim-wit, I am in my period and wearing only one cloth. It is improper to take me to a public place in this condition."

Draupadi immediately started praying to Bhagawan Krishna. Meanwhile Dushasana, hearing her words, starting pulling her hair even more forcefully and said: "You may be menstruating, wearing only one cloth or not wearing anything at all. Now you are our slave and will have to live according to our wishes."

Draupadi’s hair had become dishevelled by now. Because of being dragged her only cloth was also slipping. She was dying with shame but inside, like a true kshatrani (woman of the warrior race), she was burning with anger. Perhaps there can be nothing lower than this for a virtuous woman, both born and married into a high family.

In this condition did she speak slowly: "O Wicked One! In the court are sitting elders whom I revere like my own father. I do not want to go in front of them in this state. Undoubtedly my husbands will not tolerate this atrocity being perpetrated on me. Yudhishthira is always situated in dharma. I do not wish to speak of even the minuscule of his shortcomings which are nothing compared to his mountain-like qualities,." Even after being so wronged by her husbands, the great pativrata had nothing but the highest regard for them, being pretty sure that they would never do anything which would be against dharma.

Finally the great woman said: "Oh! I have not done till now what I should have done first. I should do that thing now. This wicked Dushasana dragging me made me forget it. In this court of the Kauravas, I give my pranamas (respectful greetings) to the elders present here. I am in turmoil and hence could not give my pranamas earlier; therefore, it should not be considered a breach of duty on my part."

Falling down on the floor and crying out she said: "I was only seen by other kings during my swayamvara. Other than that, nobody had seen me anywhere on any occasion. That same me has now been dragged to this public court. When I used to live in my palace, not even the wind or the Sun could lay an eye on me. That same me is now being seen by the vast multitude present in this court."

"I am the daughter-in-law of this clan, almost like a daughter, and do not deserve to be tormented like this. Even then I am being subjected to this excruciating torture. What can be more wretched than a sati and pure lady like myself being brought to a public place in this manner? I have heard that women who follow dharma were never brought before a public court. But here, in this court of the Kauravas, this eternal dharma has been violated. How can I, the wife of the Pandavas, sister of Dhrishtdyumna and sakhi of Lord Krishna be brought forth like this in the assembly of kings?"

There ensued then, a long discussion on the nuances of dharma in that court full of kings, in between of which the great-grandfather Bhishma said: "The fact that even in this great state of suffering you are still looking at dharma is but befitting to your high character."

Suddenly, a howling wolf entered into the sanctified area where Duryodhana used to conduct his daily Agnihotra sacrifice. This ill-omen plus the wise counsel given by his chief-minister Vidura, prompted Dhritrashtra, the father of Duryodhana and paternal uncle of the Pandavas to say: "O dim-witted Duryodhana!, even though living you are as good as dead. O mannerless one! you have brought into this exalted gathering a lady of our own clan and that too the dharma-patni of the Pandavas and then you speak to her in this low manner."

So saying, wanting to save his kin from destruction and desiring the well-being of his clan, Dhritrashtra addressed Draupadi: "Dear daughter!, you are the best amongst my daughters-in-law and also a follower of dharma. Take any wish you want from me."

The virtuous Draupadi replied: "O Great King!, if you want to grant me a wish, I ask that my husband Yudhishthira, who is a follower of dharma, be released from his servitude, so that my sons are not referred to as dasa-putras (sons of slaves) by others.

Dhritrashtra said: "So be it. Now I grant you another wish. Ask for whatever you want."
Draupadi said: "As a second wish I ask that the other four Pandavas also be granted freedom and be released from their servitude."

Dhritrashtra replied: "So be it. Now ask for a third boon. I feel that you deserve more than two boons."

Draupadi’s reply to this offer shows the supreme character of this virtuous lady. She said: "Bhagwan! Greed is the destroyer of dharma. I do not desire a third boon; and in any case I am not entitled to ask for three boons. According to the dharmasastras, a vaishya can ask for one boon, a kshatriya woman two boons, a kshatriya man three and a brahmin a 100 boons. Respected King!, my husbands had gotten into deep trouble because of losing themselves in the game of dice. Now they are through it. Hereafter, they can achieve their well-being through their own efforts by performing punya-karma (hence I do not want any more boons)."

Not once did the great Draupadi think of asking for punishment for Duryodhana and his brothers. She wanted revenge, but not as a favor. It was now the sacred duty of her husbands to avenge her humiliation. Her conduct prompted even Karna, the sworn enemy of the Pandavas to remark: "Of all the women I have heard of, not one of them stands in comparison to the great Draupadi." (Mahabharata Sabha Parva, Chapters 67-71).

Draupadi was as forgiving as mother earth herself. At the end of the Mahabharata war, when countless warriors from both the Pandava and Kaurava side had perished, and Bhima had broken Duryodhana’s thigh with his mace, then Ashwatthama, a brahmin and the son of their guru Dronacharya, thinking that it would please Duryodhana, in order to end the lineage of the Pandavas went ahead and murdered all the sleeping children of Draupadi. This ghastly act was criticised even by Duryodhana. Draupadi was distraught on hearing the news. Arjuna promised to her: "Draupadi! I will wipe your tears only when I will cut down the head of that low brahmin and present it to you so that you can have your bath after stepping on his head once the last rites of your sons have been performed. So saying he set out in search of his guru’s son Ashwatthama. The latter, who was already distressed at his own cowardly act, when he saw Arjuna approaching him, ran off to save his life. After a prolonged battle Arjuna defeated him and tied him up, much like a sacrificial animal is tied to a post in Vedic sacrifices.

Just then Arjuna saw his dear friend Bhagawan Krishna approaching him. The Lord said in anger: "Arjuna! It will not be correct to pardon this fallen brahmin. Kill him. He has killed innocent children sleeping in the night. His death will be beneficial for him also, since if he continues like this he will commit more sins and fall into hell." Lord Krishna wanted to test Arjuna’s commitment to dharma that is why he prompted him to act in this manner. However, even though Ashwatthama had murdered his children, the great Arjuna did not feel like killing him.

The two friends then went over to their camp and handed Ashwatthama over to Draupadi who was grieving for her sons. Draupadi saw Ashwatthama being brought to her like an animal tied with ropes. Because of his lowly act his head was faced downwards. Seeing the condition of their guru’s son, Draupadi’s soft heart was filled with compassion and she did namaskara to Ashwatthama who, just a few hours back, had caused her grievous harm. She could not tolerate their guru-putra being tied up in this manner and said to Arjuna: "Leave him, leave him. He is a brahmin and worthy of our worship. You learned the skill of archery and attained mastery in the use of weapons only through the grace of your guru Dronacharya. That same guru is now standing before you in the form his son. His mother, who is still alive, is much attached to him. You are a knower of dharma. It does not befit you to harm your guru’s family, which is worthy of receiving your respect and worship.Their mother should not cry, like I have at the death of my children. Those out of control kings, who earn the wrath of brahmins by their violent deeds, are burned down along with their families by the fiery wrath of the same brahmins."

Draupadi’s words were in accordance with dharma. There was no deception or hypocrisy, rather they were full of compassion and equanimity. Thus her words were welcomed by all who were present and Ashwatthama was spared his life, but banished from the kingdom forever. (Shrimad Bhagavatam 1.7)

Conclusion: We find in Draupadi the primordial expression of forbearance and forgiveness, two essential features of a dharma. In India, a married woman is an institution in herself, inviolable because of the sacredness of her commitment. Truly, history is relevant to the extent that it offers us lessons to be learnt, providing us role-models to be followed. In this sense it is itihasas like Ramayana and Mahabharata which offer us eternally relevant role-models, who inspire us to inculcate ever-lasting values, thus giving a comforting and narrative continuity to our lives, which otherwise would have perplexed us with uncertainty.

Dienstag, 2. Februar 2016

Iconography of Jaina Deities (Set of 2 Volumes)




About The Book
 
Jainism has to its credit a large number of religious treatises enshrining besides the other religious practices, the lives and teachings of the Tirthankaras, twenty-four in number, besides other minor deities. The iconography of these Jaina deities, some of which owe their origin to the Brahmanical faith is quite complex in nature. The iconography of these deities has been discussed at length, correlating it with the development of Jaina sculptural art from the earliest times to the medieval period. While doing so, the sculptural art as preserved in the Jaina temples at Deogarh, Khajuraho, Kumbharia, Osian, Abu, Taranga, Gyaraspur, Jalor, Ghanerao and many other Jaina shrines and the vestiges of the past have been discussed in considerable details. Stress has also been laid in the description of the Sasanadevatas of the Tirthankaras viz., the Yaksas and Yaksis, in addition to the Mahavidyas, and other Tantric deities. The composite forms of the Jaina deities available in the Jaina shrines and other antiquarian remains have also received due attention. The prominent Jaina personalities of divine nature like Bahubali, Bharata, Cakravarti, the parents of the Jinas and other issues connected with them have also been suitably brought out.

The life scenes of the Jinas have been projected mostly in the Svetambara Jaina temples, besides in the form of miniatures in the Kalpasutra manuscripts. These have been highlighted in this work in a befitting manner in addition to the hitherto lesser known deities of the Jaina pantheon. The entire study has been authenticated by the numerous Jaina texts, the evidence of the sculptural art in the country, besides the historical and other archaeological evidence which would interest the students and scholars besides the common people as well.

About The Author
The author, a graduate of the Punjab University, served in the curatorial capacity in the Central Asian Antiquities Museum, New Delhi, the Archaeological Museum, Nalanda, and Archaeological Section of the. Indian Museum, Calcutta for a number of years, He has to his credit the scientific documentation of over fifty thousand antiquities, in these museums, representing the rich cultural heritage of the country and comprising of sculptures, bronzes, terracottas, beads, seals and sealing, ancient Indian numismatics, wood work, miniatures and paintings, textiles and Pearce collection of gems, ranging from the earliest times to the late medieval period. He was awarded, in 1987, a fellowship, for his monograph on the Temples of Himachal Pradesh, by the Indian Council of Historical Research, New Delhi. The glimpses of the author's works are provided below-

(1) The Universal Mother (2) Temples of Himachal Pradesh (3) The Indian Monoliths (4) Protection, Conservation and Preservation of Indian Monuments (5) Working Manual and Field Works Code, (3 Volumes) of the Archaeological Survey of India (6) Mahisa- suramardini in Indian Art (7) Composite Deities in Indian Art and Literature (8) Garuda, the Celestial Bird (9) The Cult of Vinayaka (10) Jatakas in Indian Art (11)Image of Brahma in India and Abroad (12) Siva in Indian Art, Literature and Thought (13) Varaha in Indian Art, Culture and Literature (14) Surya and Sun-Cult in Indian Art, Thought, Literature and Culture (15) Maruti-Hanuman (16) Sri Visnu Caritam (17) Mahiravana in Indian Paintings (18) Krttivasa Ramayana (English Translation).

Preface
The sacred land of India, is the land of religion. Many religions, religious beliefs, and religious sects have played their role for the enlightenment of the man and for the removal of the sufferings of the mankind. In order to achieve this objective many religious beliefs dominated the Indian religious scene from time to time in the past. While some of them vanished from the Indian religious thought as rapidly as they had mushroomed, some of them faded away from the public mind, with the passage of time, having outlived their respective utility or having lost the public appeal. Still there were certain cults, creeds and the religious beliefs which claim their genesis to the remote past but never lost their public appeal and have reached the modern times. Jainism, happens to the one of them , the historicity of which could conveniently be traced to centuries before the advent of the Christian era, and has come down to us during the present times facing many storms and upheavals, before reaching the modern age. Though by about the beginning of the Christian era, the faith was divided into two separate but parallel streams of ideologies, but its basic character remained unchanged.
In the Jaina traditions, besides the other deities, the Arhats, the Siddhas, the Kevalas have been treated with great reverence. The Sadhus (ascetics) have been defined to be of two kinds including - Acaryas, Upadhyayas and ordinary monks. The Kevala knowledge is also considered to be the holy discourse of the Jinas and is also called Sruta. The Jaina religion prescribes the adoration of these Pancaparmesthis, besides the Srutadevatas. The Sasanadevatas (Yaksas and Yaksis), the Ksetrapalas, Dikpalas, and Navagrahas were admitted as objects of adoration by the Jainas in the later times.

The method of the adoration of the Jinas, and the need for their worship has been defined in several Jaina texts. Many of the Acaryas have conceived it to be the part of Vaiyavrtya. That is why Samantabhadra included it in his text of Ratnakaranda Sravakacara in the same way as Somadeva Surt did it in his Yasastilaka Campu. Jinasena too included it in his Adi Purana in one form or the other.

The adoration has been described to be of six kinds, viz., (1) Naga worship, (ii) Sthapanapisja (iii) Dravyapuia, (iv) Ksetrapuja, (v) Kalapuja, and (vi) Bhavapuja. Out of them, the Sthapanapuja is of two types viz., Sadbhava-sthapana and Asadbhava-sthapana. The creation of the image of deity is exactly in the same form (as prescribed in the texts) and worshipping it, comes under the first category; the adoration of a slab or a vase filled with water, consecrating it and then adoring it, comes under the second category. The Jaina texts discourage the adoration of the Asadbhava consecration of divinities. Vasunandi Sravakacara has stressed on the need for the adoration of the well consecrated images alone-

The images by the sight of which, one feels delighted are required to be erected by the devotees. Such images are worshipped conceiving that all the qualities and virtues of the Lord are enshrined in such images. According to a Jaina tradition Bahubali, the son of Rsabha, the first Tirthankara, who indeed was a Cakravartin, built as many as seventy-two Jaina temples over the Kailasa mountain. This led to the tradition for the consecration of the Jaina shrines and images. Numerous texts are available containing the method for the consecration of the Jaina images. All these texts are the creations of the medieval times. It is not that the images of the Tirthankaras were not made earlier to the medieval times, because we have met with such images during the Sunga- Kusana times and thereafter there is a continuous flow of such images. The earliest reference to the erection of a Jina image is found in the Avasyakacurni in which it is stated that during the life time of Mahavira, the last of the Tirthankaras, before his receiving diksa, his image of sandalwood was carved. In the epigraph of Hathi Gumpha, there is a mention of the removal of the image of Jina from Kalinga by Nandaraja, Though some of the scholars have tried to trace the presence of the Jaina deities in the Harappan Culture itself, but this theory has been contested by others. But the earliest figure of a Jina, though damaged, was found from Lohanipur near Patna. The artefacts of Mathura, Khandagiri in Orissa and several other sites have produced the Jaina artefacts from quite an early date.

The early images of the Jaina faith were confined to the Jinas alone and they could be distinguished from one another with the help of their names, inscribed over pedestal of each one of these images. At a subsequent stage the respective lanchanas (cognizances) were also embossed or carved over the pedestals by which one could identify the Jina images. A third stage was reached when the Sasanadevatas (a yaksa and yaksi) were attached to each one of the Tirthankaras, making their identification a bit easier. Simultaneously, the Jaina texts highlighting the iconography of these Sasanadevatas as well as the Mahavidyas were also developed. But a surprising development of the medieval times had been the admission of the Brahmanical deities like Siva, Brahma, Navagrahas, Matrikas, Ganesa, Laksmi, Rama, Krsna and Balarama into the Jainism, though their position was always a subordinate one. Surprisingly enough the images of Brahrnanical deities were found installed in the Parsvanatha temple at Khajuraho, besides other Jaina temples at Kumbharia, Deogarh, Abu and others.

But the most astonishing aspect of the Jaina faith had been the silent penetration of the Tantric deities like the Mahavidyas, the Causatha-yoginis and the like in the Jaina faith, the adoration of which was contrary to the Jaina beliefs. The text of Catursastiyoginitantra is quite vocal on the subject. Though most of the yoginis of the Brahmanical faith found place in the yoginis of the Jaina faith, but some of them were developed independently by the Jainas as well.

The present work has been distributed into a dozen chapters. The first chapter deals with the doctrine, philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, monks and monkhood, Ajivakas and the Asceticism, providing broad outlines of the Jaina faith on these issues besides several other topics, which provide a bird's eye view of the genesis and evolution of the Jaina spiritual thought. The second .... chapter deals with the literary sources, Brahmanical, Jaina "as well as the Buddhist, on the basis of which the monograph has been based. These include Vedic and post-vedic literature, Epics, Upanisads, Puranas, Jaina texts including Silpasastras and several other texts. The third chapter deals with the Tirthankaras, their genesis and evolution, their projection in art and other related issues. The fourth chapter deals with the Yaksas in general as well as those attached to the Tirthankaras as their attendants, the number of whom is twenty-four. The fifth chapter deals with iconography of the Yaksis besides their projection in art.

The sixth chapter deals with Srutadevis and Vidyadevis or Mahavidyas whose number is sixteen. The seventh chapter highlights the position of the Brahmanical deities who were silently admitted into the Jaina faith. The eighth chapter describes the iconography of Navagrahas, and Vyantara devatas, besides their projection in art. It includes, besides Navagrahas,Ksetrapalas and Dikpalas. The ninth chapter deals with other modes of adoration. The tenth chapter deals with the evidence of Epigraphical records which relate to the Jaina faith. The eleventh chapter has the importance of its own since the life scenes of Rsabha, Parsva and Mahavira, based on the Kalpasutra have been brought out. Epilogue, the last chapter, sums up the discussion of the subject as contained in the earlier chapters. This is not the first work on the subject, but several others have also been composed by scholars of great repute with all the ability and excellence at their command. These works have left an indelible impression on the students of the subject who always look upon them as their guides and torch bearers.

Introduction
A. Introduction -Jinastuti, by Acarya Samantabhadra (Lord Rsabha, was self born, since he had attained salvation and the four infinites (i. e. , the infinite perception, knowledge, potence and bliss) of his own accord by spontaneously knowing and following the path of salvation without receiving any instruction (or monitoring or support) by others. He was benevolent to all and magnificent with the glory of the eyes of the perfect knowledge. He graced the world like the moon, annihilating the darkness of ignorance-caused by the fruition of knowledge-observing karma-by his attributes and helped the mundane soul in their endeavours for the attainment of celestial pleasures and for those of salvation.)

Jainism is the monastic religion, which, like Buddhism, denounced the authority of the Vedas, and is therefore regarded by the Brahmanas as heretical. Indeed both Jainism and Buddhism are considered by scholars to be reactionary to the age old Vedic practices of the performing of the yajnas as well as the animal sacrifice. The jaina church consists of monastic order and the lay community. It is divided into two rival sects called the Svetambaras and the Digambaras or the sky clad; they are so called because the monks of the Svetambaras wear white garment and those of the Digambaras originally went about stark naked till they were forced to cover their privates during the medieval times. The dogmatic differences between the two sects are rather trivial; they differ more in conduct rather than basic or fundamental principles.

The interest of Jainism to the student of religion, consists in fact that it goes back to a very early period and to the primitive currents of religious and metaphysical speculation, which gave rise also to the oldest Indian philosophies-Samkhya and Yoga and Buddhism. It shares in the theoretical pessimism of the three systems as the aim of their practical idea-Liberation. Life in the world perpetuated by the transmigration of the soul, is essentially bad and painful, and therefore, it must be the aim of everyone to put an end to the cycle of births and this end will be accomplished when we come into the possession of the right knowledge. It may be stated that with the exception of Yoga, all these ancient systems are strictly atheistic i.e., they do not admit an absolute Supreme God; even in Yoga, the Isvara is not the first and the only cause of everything existent. In this general principle Jainism agrees with Samkhya and Yoga besides the Buddhism, but they differ in their methods of realising it. In the metaphysics there is some general likeness between Samkhya and Yoga on the one ham and Jainism on the other. For in all thest systems a dualism of matter and soul is acknowledged; the souls are principally all alike substances, characterised by 'intelligence their actual difference being caused by their connection with matter; matter according to Jainas and Samkhyas of indefinite nature as something that might become anything. These general metaphysical principles, however, are worked out on different lines by the Samkhyas and the Jainas, the difference being more accentuated by the different origins of these systems. For the.Samkhyas owe their allegiance to the Brahmanas, have adopted Brahmanical ideas and the modes of thought, which the Jainas being distinctively non- Brahmanical have worked upon popular notions of a more primitive and ruder character, e.g. animistic idea. But the metaphysical principles of Buddhism are of an entirely different character being moulded by the fundamental principles of Buddhism, viz., that there is no absolute or permanent being, or in other words, that all things are transitory. Notwithstanding the radical differences in their philosophical notions, Jainism and Buddhism, being originally both orders of monks outside the pale of Brahmanism, present some resemblance in outward appearance, so that even Indian writers occasionally have confused them. It is, therefore, not to be wondered that some foreign scholars, who became acquainted with Jainism through the inadequate samples of the Jaina literature easily persuaded themselves that it was the offshoot of the Buddhism. But it has since been proved beyond doubt that their theory is wrong and that Jainism is as old as Buddhism itself. For the canonical books ofthe Buddhists frequently mention the Jainas as a rival sect under their old name Nirganthas (or Nirgranthas in Sanskrit and also known as Nigganthas in common Prakrit) and their leader in the time of the Buddha being Nataputta (Nata or Natiputta being an epithet of the last Tirthankara of the Jainism, Vardhamana Mahavira and they name the place of the latter's death at Pava, in agreement with the Jaina traditions. On the other hand the canonical books of the Jainas mention as contemporary of Mahavira the same kings who; reigned during the Buddha's career and one of the latter's rivals. Thus it is established that Mahavira was a contemporary of Buddha and probably somewhat earlier than the latter, who outlived the rival's decease at Pavao Like the Buddha, Mahavira, however, was probably not the founder of the sect, which revers him as the Tirthankara and not as the author of their religion.

According to the unanimous Buddhist tradition, Buddha had, under the Bodhi-tree discovered by intuition the fundamental truth as his religion, as it appears throughout his personal . Work; his first sermons of the religion, are things ever to be remembered by his followers, as are the doctrines which he then preached. No such traditions are preserved in the canonical literature the Jainas about Mahavira. His becoming a monk and twelve years later, his attainment of omniscience (Kevala) are of course celebrated events. But the tradition is silent about his motives for the renouncing of the world and about the particular truths whose discovery led to his exalted position. At any rate Mahavira is not described by the tradition as first having become a disciple of teachers whose doctrines afterwards failed to satisfy him as we are told about the Buddha.

He seems to have had no misgivings, and to have known where the truth was to be had and thus he became a Jaina monk. Again, when after many years of austerities such as are practised by other ascetics of the Jainas, he reached omniscience. He is represented as gaining his Kevala, perfect knowledge of what he knew before only in part and imperfectly earlier. Thus, Mahavira appears in the tradition of his own and as the one, who, from the beginning had followed a religion establishcd long ago; but he had been more, had he been the founder of Jainism, tradition, ever eager to extol a prophet, would not have totally repressed his claims to reverence as such. Nor do the Buddhist traditions indicate that the Niganthas owed their origin to Natiputta; they simply speak of them as of a sect existing at the time of Buddha. Though it would be difficult to assume Mahavira as the founder of Jainism in the absence of any positive evidence in support of it, because he ippened to be, according to the Jaina tradition, the last of the twenty-four Tirthankaras.

parasvanatha, his predecessor, seems to have better claim to title ofthe founder of Jainism. His death is reasonably placed at the interval of two hundred and fifty years before that of Mahavira, while parsvanatha's predecessor Aristanemi is stated to have died eighty-four thousand years before the nirvana of Mahavira. Followers of Parsvanatha are mentioned in the Jaina canonical literature. A tradition in a legend described in the Uttaradhyana Sutra (xxiii) relates about a meeting between a disciple of Parsva and a disciple of Mahavira which brought about the union of the old branch of 'the Jaina philosophy with the new one. This seems to indicate that Parsva was a historical figure, but in the absence of historical documents no positive statement can be made.

CONTENTS

 
Vol. 1
 
  Acknowledgements v
  Preface vii
  List of Figures xv
  List of Plates xix
 
1. Introduction - I-49
 
A. Introduction - (i) The Doctrines-(a) Philosophy-5, (b) Metaphysics-6; (ii) The Ethics-8; (iii) The Monks and Monkhood-8; (iv) Ascetism-9; (v) Ajivakas-11 1
B. The Svetambaras and the Digambaras - (i) The Digambaras-(a) Yaksas and Yaksinis-l 8; (ii) The Svetambaras-21 11
C. The Image Worship - (i) The Genesis-26; (ii) The Evolution-27; (iii) Accessories-28 26
D. Classification of Jaina Gods and Goddesses -(i) Jaina Divinities-30; (ii) Brahmanical Divinities-32 30
E. The Tirthankaras 33
F. The Evidence of Early Indian Art 35
G. Historical Overtones 36
H. Places of Jaina Pilgrimage 42
I. Ayagapattas 43
J. Omkara 46
K. Hrmkara 47
L. Siddhartha-cakra 47
M. Pancatirtha 48
N. The Slakapurusas 48
O. Krsna and Balarama 48
 
2. The Literary Sources-50-62
 
1. Brahmanical Literature 50
A. Vedic Literature - (i) Rgveda-Sl ; (ii) Yajurveda-51; (iii) Atharvaveda-52 50
B. Post-Vedic Literature - The Brahmanas (Satapatha Brahmana)-52 52
C. The Epics - (i) Ramayana-52; (ii) Mahabharata-52 52
D. The Upanisads - (i) Taittiriya Upanisad-53; (ii) Nrsimhaparvatapinyopanisad-53; (iii) Mundaka Upanisad-53; (iv) Brhadaranyaka Upanisad-53 53
E. The Puranas - (i) Bhagavata Purana-54; (ii) Brahmanda Purana-56: (iii) Garuda Purana-56; (iv) Visnu Purana-56: (v) Markandeya Purana-57; (vi) Vamana Purana-57; (vii) Siva Purana-57: (viii) Kurma Purana-58 54
2. Jaina Literature 58
A. Silpasastras 58
B. Western Indian Texts -(i) Vastusastra of Visvakarma-59; (ii) Vastuvidya of Visvakarma-60; (iii) Aparajitaprccha of Bhuvanadeva-60; (iv) Sridevyadhikara-60; (v) Vrksaranava-60 59
3 The Buddhist Literature 60
 
3. The Tirthankaras-63-183
 
A. The Concept 63
B. The Material for Icons 65
C. The Icons - Silpratna. Sravakacara. Pratisthapatha, Acaradinkara. Pratisthasaroddhara, Visnudharmattara, Mayamatta. Pratisthasarasamgraha, Brhatsamhita, Vivekavilasa, Rupamandana. Aparajitaprchha. 66
D. Twenty-four Jinas - (i) General observations-69; (ii) The Associates- Tirthankaras, their symbols, Yaksa and Yaksis at a glance-70; (iii) The Main Objects of Worship-72 69
E. Tirthankaras in Art - (i) Rsabhanatha/Adinatha-73; (ii) Ajitanatha-91; (iii) Samhbhavanatha-94; (iv) Abhinandananatha-96; (v) Sumatinatha-98; (vi) Padmaprabha-l00; (vii) Suparsvanatha- l0l ; (viii) Candraprabha-103; (ix) Suvidhinatha or Puspadanta- 106; (x) Sitalanatha- 107; (xi) Sreyansanatha -108; (xii) Vasupujya-l09; (xiii) Vimalanatha - 111 ; (xiv) Anantanatha - 112: (xv) Dharmanatha-113; (xvi) Santinatha-114; (xvii) Kunthanatha-120; (xviii) Aranatha- l21 : (xix) Mallinatha-122; (xx) Munisuvrata-124; (xxi) Naminatha-126; (xxii) Neminatha-127; (xxiii) Parsvanatha- l34: (xxiv) Mahavira-148; (xxv) Bahubali and Bharata-158; (xxvi) Groups of Tirthankaras-l64 73
 
4. The Yakas-184-246
 
A. The Salient Features 188
B. Projection in the Early Art 191
C. The Yaksas and Their Iconographic Features - (i) Gomukha-196; (ii) Maha yaksa-200; (iii) Trimukha-202; (iv) Isvara or Yaksesvara-203; (v) Tumburu-204; (vi) Kusuma-205; (vii) Matanga-206; (viii) Vijaya or Syama-208; (ix) Ajita-209; (x) Brahma'Yaksa=211 ; (xi) Isvara-213; (xii) Kumara-214; (xiii) Sanmukha or Caturmukha-216; (xiv) Patala-217; (xv) Kinnara-219; (xvi) Garuda-220; (xvii) Gandharva-222; xviii) Yaksendra or Ksendra or Yaksesa-224; (xix) Kubera or Yaksesa-226; (xx) Varuna-228; (xxi) Bhrkuti-230; (xxii) Gomedha-231; (xxiii) Parsva or Dharatendra-236; (xxiv) Matanga-239 196
D. Other Yaksas - (i) Sarvalha or Sarvahana-242; (ii) BrahmaSanti-243; (iii) Kapardi-243 242
 
5. The Yaksis (or Yaksinis)-247-313
 
A. The Salient Features 247
B. Projection in Art 249
C. Yaksis and Their Iconographic Features - (i) Cakresvari or Apraticakra-252; (ii) Ajita or Ajitabala or Rohini-258; (iii) Duritari or Prajnapti-261; (iv) Kalika or Kali or Vajrasrnkhala-263; (v) Mahakali or Purusadatta or Naradatta-264; (vi) Acyuta or Syama or Manasi or (v) Mahakali or Purusadatta or Naradatta-264; (vi) Acyuta or Syama or Manasi or Manovega -266; (VII)Santa or kali -268; (VIII) Bhrkuti or Jvala or Javalamalini -269; (ix)Sutara or Candalika or Mahakali-271;(x)Asoka or Gomedhika or Manavi-272; (xi) Manavi or Srivatsa or Gauri-274; (xii) Canda or Pracanda or Ajita or Gandhari-276; (xiii) Vidita or Vairoti-277; (xiv) Anantmati or Anantamati-279; (xv) Kandarpa or Pannaga or Manasi-280; (xvi) Nirvant or Mahamanasi-281; (xvii) Bala or Jaya-283; (xviii) Dharani or Taravati, Kall or Vijaya-285; (xix) Vairotya or Aparajita-287; (xx) Naradatta or Bahurupini-288; (xxi) Gandhari or Malini, Camunda or Kusmandini-289; (xxii) Ambika or Kusmandi; or Amara Devi-291; (xxiii) Padmavati-301; (xiv) Siddhidayika or Siddhidayini-308. 249
 
6. Srutadevis/Vidyidevis-314-349
 
  Mahavidyas-
(i) Rohini-321; (ii) Prajnapati-321; (iii) Vajrasrnkhala-322; (iv) Vajrankusa-323; >(v) Apraticakra or Cakresvari or Jambumala-324; (vij Naradatta or Puspadanta327; (vii) Kali or KaIika-330; (viii) Mahakali-332; (ix) Gauri-334; (x) Gandhari-336; (xi) Sarvastramahajvala or Jvala or Jvalamalini-337; (xii) Manavi-339; (xiii) Vairotya or Vairoti-340; (xiv) Acchusa or Acyuta-343; (xv) Manasi-345; (xvi) Mahamanasi-346.
 
 
7. The Brahmanical Deities-350-366
 
A. Male Deities -
(i) Brahma-350; (ii) Vismu-350; (iii) Rama-352; (iv) Lord Krsna-353; (v) Ganesa-357; (vi) Indra-358.
350
B. Female Deities -
(i) Laksmi-359; (ii) Mahisasuramardini - 359; (iii) Causathayoginis - 360; (iv)Astamatrikas-362; (v) Harinaigamesa or Naigamesa-364; (vi) Santi Devi-366.
359
 
Vol. 2
 
 
8. Navagrahas and Vyantara Devatas-367-384
 
A. The Nine Planets or Navagrahas - (i) The Sun-368; (ii) The Moon-368; (iii) Mars-369; (iv) Mercury-370; (v) Jupiter-370; (vi) Venus-371 ; (vii) Saturn-372; (viii) Rahu-372; (ix) Ketu-373. 367
B. Vyantara Devatas 374
1. Ksetrapalas 374
2. Lokapalas - (i) Indra-376; (ii)Agni-377; (iii) Yama-378; (iv)Nairriti-379; (v) Varuna-380; (vi) Vayu-381; (vii) Kubera-382; (viii) Isana-383; (ix) Brahma-384; (x) Nagas-384. 375
 
9. Other Modes of Adoration-385-410
 
  (i) Pancaparamesthins-385; (ii) Trees, Flowers and Fruits-391; (iii) Hand Attributes-400; (iv) Asanas-406; (v) Mudras-407; (vi) Halo-408; (vii) The Ornaments-408; (viii) Cymbal Players-408; (ix) Chowrie-bearers-408; (x) Lanchanas-409; (xi) Srivatsa symbol-409  
 
10. The Epigraphical Profile -411-419
 
  Kusana Period-411; Gupta Period (A.D. 350-650)-412; Medieval Period (9th Century A.D.)-413; 11th Century A.D.-415; 12th Century A.D.-415; 13th Century A.D.-417; 14th Century A.D.-417; 15th Century A.D.-417; 16th Century A.D.-418.  
 
11. The Evidence of Miniature Paintings from Kalpasutra Manuscripts -420-435
 
A. Life of Rsabha 420
B. Life of Mahavira 427
C. Llfe of Parsva 434
D. Life of Aristanemi 435
 
12. Epilogue-436-440
 
 
Appendices-441-450
 
I. Twenty-four Tirthankaras-A Profile 441
II. Yaksa Iconography-A Review 443
III. Yaksis' or Yaksnis' Profile 446
IV. Profile of Jaina Mahavidyas 449
 
Bihliography-451
 
 
Index-461

Item Code:
NAL512
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1999
Publisher:
B.R. Publishing Corporation
ISBN:
Vol-I:9788176461184
Vol-II: 9788176461191
Language:
English
Size:
11.0 inch x 8.5 inch
Pages:
1744 (76 B/W Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 2.8 kg
Price:
Euro 93.56

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